How People Make Economic Decisions
Eco 212 Jerry Pacheco
Shonti JacksonMaking a decision can be an emotional and sometimes stressful experience. Making sound decisions requires patience, an open mind, and a willingness to try different techniques to arrive at a final solution.
How people make decisions, whether large or small, depend on several factors or principles. One principle that one must consider, is a trade off. What will one have to give up attaining the other When deciding to go back to school, one will have to weigh the options of time and expense against family and finances. One may consider if the benefits of earning a degree is worth the time and effort required. Another principle one may encounter is the ultimate cost of giving up one thing to get the other. While weighing the pros and cons one might consider the cost of going to school and if it cost effective. Campus courses versus online courses, travel time study time, and food are a few of the cost that might be considered. Something else to consider may be what one gets if he or she decides one way or the other. Incentives are what most decisions are based on. If one does this, the reward is that. Sometimes, the reward is the deciding factor for some decisions, for others, the rewards may not be as numerous, so the person may decide that it is not worth it. Whatever the process one uses for making decisions one must be diligent and thorough as the decision affects everyone involved.
Deciding to go back to school was a decision based on convenience and expense. Before making the final decision, all available options were discussed with the family. The pros and cons were listed and finally the cost and rewards were discussed. It was determined that going back to school to earn a degree in Small business would in fact bring many rewards. This degree along with the cosmetology license currently held would make it possible to own and run a successful business, making the family economically sound by increasing the family income.
Mankiw, Gregory Principles of Economics Chp. 1
How People Make Economic Decisions
Coping With Life Events And Promoting Mental Health And Adaptation.
This Presentation Is On Coping With Life Events And Promoting Mental Health And Adaptation
I Will Introduce My Patient Taking Into Account The Confidentiality Statement By The Nmc Professional Code Of Conduct, 2008 And The Ten Essential Capabilities A Frame Work For All Mental Health Professionals . I Will Talk About Recovery And Research, And Then I Will Give My Conclusion.
According The Nmc Code Of Conduct, (2008) Patient Confidentiality Must Be Kept;
This Demonstrates Dignity And Respect For The Individual. In This Presentationmy Patient??™s Name Has Been Pseudomised And I Will Call Him Sam.
Doh, 2004 Developed A Framework Through Collaboration With Service Users To Promote Attitudes Associated With Quality Mental Health Services I, These Are The Ten Essential Capabilities.
All Mental Health Professional Are Expected To Adhere To That Guidance Which Is Beneficial To Both Staff And Patients
Sam Is A 35 Years Old Man With A Diagnosis Of Schizophrenia Which Has Been Maintained On Antipsychotics For The Past Ten Years, One Of Which Is Risperdal Consta Depot 50 Mg. His Psychosis Was Made Worse By Substance Misuse. Shergil, 2009
Sam Is The Second Of Three Brothers; He Was Raised By His Grandmother With Whom He Formed An Attachment
Another Important Attachment Figure Was His Girlfriend Whom He Intended To Marry And Have A Family With.
Sam Lives Alone And Was Working In A Local Firm As An Accountant Until Three Years Ago When He Became Unwell.
The Parents And Siblings Are Very Supportive Of Sam.
An Attachment Is An Emotional Relationship Involving People In Which Separation From The Other Leads To Sorrow And Distress (Bowlby, 1990)
A Life Event Is Defined As A Human Experience Causing Disturbance And In Need Of Adaptation Efforts (Rice, 2000)
Goodyer, 1990 States A Life Event Is Any Occurrence In The Life Of An Individual Having The Potential To Alter His Present Mental Or Physical Wellbeing.
Life Events Need Not To Be Catastrophic In Nature; Even The Normal Necessary Life Events Are Potential Stressors. Example Of Life Events Are, Birth Of A Child, New Job, Promotion (Good) Separation Or Divorce Of Loved Ones And Death. (Bad)
Sam Experienced Two Live Events; The Death Of His Grandmother Who Died In Her Sleep And The Breakup Of His Relationship.
These Two Life Events Caused Sam Distress. A Stressful Event Is Defined As A Stressor.(Rice, 2000)
The Psychological Impact Of The Life Events On Sam Was Loss, Leading Sam To Experiencing Anxiety With Symptoms Of Panic, Headache And Muscle Tensions And Fear.
(Hogan And Brosan, 2007), Define Anxiety As A Mixture Of Negative Emotions And Is One Of The Most Universal Emotions.
The Major Life Event Experienced By Sam Was The Death Of His Grandmother Which Led To The Deterioration Of His Mental State; Hearing Voices And Responding To Hallucinations,
Hence The Girl Living Because Probably She Could Not Cope With His Illness, This Resulted In Sam??™s Anxiety Being Heightened.
Folkman And Lazarus, 1980) Defines Coping As The Ability To Deal With A Prevailing Situation, Taking Into Account Culture And The Environment,Goals And Beliefs
Coping Can Be Adaptive, When The Individual Is Master Over The Stressor And Maladaptive Which Is Non Coping.
In Order To Cope With The Stress, Sam Used Defence Mechanism Which Is An Unconcious Mental Process Used By The Ego To Reduce Anxiety.
Which When Used Short Term Can Adaptive.
Adaptive Coping Reduces Psychological And Emotional Distress.
Sam Used Denial, Refusing To Accept That The Relationship Was Over; Refusing To Accept The Reality Of What Had Transpired.
He Also Isolated Himself, Stopped Going To Work, Spending His Time Drinking Alcohol, Abusing Substance Or Sleeping.
Sam Rationalised His Alcohol Consumption And Substance Misuse By Saying He Was Too Stressed To Stay Sober.
Sam??™s Coping Became Maladaptive As He Continued Drinking Alcohol Excessively And Abusing Drugs.
In Order To Help Sam Cope, We Worked In Collaboration With Sam, To Identify Coping Strategies Suitable For Him.
The Need For Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Cbt) Was Identified And Sam Agreed To Have A Session With The Psychologist And Other Members Of The Professional Care Team, The First Session Was Good Because Sam Was Able To Control Emotional Distress And Keeping His Anxiety To A Minimum
Sam Worked, In Collaboration With Staff Organised A Group Of Individuals With Similar Problems For The Purpose Of Identifying Activities That Could Improve Wellbeing.
Tailored Activities Preferred By Sam And Peers Were, Group Walking, Going To The Gym, And Socialisation, These Were Implimented And Sam Engaged.
Sam Agreed To Talk About His Expirince And To Receive Feedback.
Good Communication Skills Was Needed To Achieve This.
400 Individuals Receiving Mental Health Services, In A Survey Carried Out By Nice, In 2005, Supported Sam??™s Coping Strategies, All Said That While Medicines Were Helpful, Like Sam They Preferred Other Ways Of Dealing With Stressors.
Sam Opted For Leisure, Hobbies Companionship And Sharing Experiences And Interests With Others, Sam Said He Would Consider Fishing As A Hobby.
Erikson, 1994, Describes The Physical, Emotional And Psychological Stages Of Development And Relates Them To Developmental Task At Each Stage.
At 35 Sam Was At Level Seven, Which Is Middle Adulthood, 30-60: Generativity Versus Stagnation. At This Stage Individuals Establish Their Careers, Settle Down Within A Relationship And Begin A Family.
Productively Sam Was Working, In A Relationship And Ready To Settle, The Life Events Affected Him Negatively And Stagnation Set In, He Stopped Working, Suffered Loss Of Income, He Could Not Pay His Bills, Lost His Self-Esteem And Isolated Himself, He Was Afraid To Start Another Relationship.
Mental Health Promotion
Doh (2001) Mental Health Promotion Is A Framework That Underpins Social Inclusion And Participation As Well As Reducing Discrimination And Challenging Inequalities.
Sam Has Been Included In The Planning And Implimenation Of His Care, This Achieves Empowerment For Sam And Helps Him To Regain His Confidence,
This Can Be Achieved By Using Mental Health Promotion Model Which Aims At Increasing The Client??™s Wellbeing Through Education.
It Is Also An Action To Help Identify Needs And Strengths Of The Individual.
For Sam One Need Identified Was For Him To Have Good Nutrition As He Had Started Eating A Lot Of Unhealthy Foods To Improve His Mental Wellbeing. (Bates, 2009). Sam Was Advised To Consider Having Fish A Good Source Of Omega 3 Fatty Acids To Promote Recovery (Brown Et Al, 2009). Watts, 2008 States That Regular Consumption Of Fish Controls Psychotic Disorders.
For Sam another Need Was Recovery Which Is Defined As A Process Allowing People To Have Control Of Their Lives (Deegan, 1998)The Influence Of Mental Health Promotion On My Practice As A Nurse Is To Enable A Holistic, Person Centred Care Based On The Principle Of Recovery Which Respects Individuality, Choice, Diversity And Values.
To Deliver Safe And Effective Evidence Based Care And Promotion Of Social Inclusion And Valuing People As Individuals. Not Trivialising Beliefs Held Dear By The Client By Taking Into Account Cultural Factors. (Repper and Perkins, 2003).
To Practice Ethically As I Consider Various Interventions For My Clients.Partnership
Sam, His Family And The Staff Have Formed An Effective Partnership In His Care Process By Engaging Sam In Planning For His Care, And Forming An Alliance Which Is Therapeutic. Peplau, 1998 Refers To This As The Human Connection Which Heals.
Quality Of Life Research, 1997, On Coping Strategies Was Conducted Involving 135 Men And 133 Women, These Two Groups Were Then Divided Into Three Age Groups, 26-40, 41-55, 56-70, The Results Were That The Men Used The Confrontational, Optimistic And Self Reliant Coping Style.
Women Used the Supportive Copping Style,
The Younger Used The Emotive Coping Style.
My Views Are That the Figures Used Did Not Represent The Majority, However All Gender Were Represented, Culturally There Was No Representation
Life Events Can Affect Anyone, Sam Experienced Life Events Which Where the Stressors. The Stressor Were the Triggers to the Anxiety
Coping Strategies Were Implemented By Sam Resulting In The Anxiety Being Reduced.
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How People Make Economic DecisionsKimberly WilliamsEco/21226 Apr 10
Ashok PadhiHow People Make Economic DecisionsThe four principles of individual decision-making are trade-offs, which is when the consumer gives one something for another something. The third principle is the cost of something, which is what the consumer has to give up in order to receive something else. [What happened to the second one] The third principle is that rational people think at the margin, which is when the decision-maker takes action if and only if the marginal benefit of the action exceeds the marginal cost. The fourth principle is that people respond to incentives, which that is when something entices a person to act upon something. A decision that I recently had to make is when I purchased another vehicle. I decided to get another vehicle because the one that I had was an older model and I was getting uncomfortable with driving it out of town. So I knew I had a budget to with and I had to make the best decision for me and my current situation. After searching around several car lots I found one where the owner was willing to work within my budget. I wanted to be able to include my taxes and plates, and insurance in my down payment. I felt like may have been pressing my luck somewhat but that was because I had a certain amount of money that I wanted to spend for everything I needed to complete the deal. I drove away from the dealership with my car, insurance, tax and tags paid and I had an extra seven hundred dollars in my pocket that I didn??™t have to spend in order to get what I wanted. The principles of economics affect decision-making, interaction, and the workings of the economy as a whole because consumers have needs of some sort. The consumers decide on what things they need and then they must obtain it from another source for a price. In logical decision making, the consumer decides what item they are in need of at the time. If they go to ???Store A??? and sees that the cost of the item is more than they may want to pay, the consumer has the option of going to another store in order to find the item at a discount or with better options.References
9780324832945, Principles of Economics, 4e, N. Gregory Mankiw – ?© Cengage Learning
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Coping With Electronic Commerce:Electronic Patient InformationBusiness 107June 06, 2009Coping With Electronic Commerce:In The Auto Insurance World Over the last three decades, the meaning of electronic commerce has changed. At first electronic commerce meant the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically. Now electronic commerce, also known as e-commerce, can be defined as business actives conducted using electronic data transmission over the Internet and the World Wide Web. Other transactions included in conducting e-commerce could be businesses trading with other businesses and internal processes that companies use to support their buying, hiring, planning, selling, and other activities. There are five general electronic commerce categories which are: business-to-consumer, business-to-business, business processes, consumer-to-consumer, and business-to government (Schneider, 2009, p. 5). The most common categories of the five are business-to-consumer, business-to-business, and business processes. For decades many auto insurance companies focused on streamlining much of their business via the internet. This was a push to move towards increasing profits, decreasing cost, and having a more paperless system. Progressive insurance company has had tremendous success with e-commerce. After reading this paper one will have a better understanding on the background of Progressive and their past business successes with the help of e-commerce. From their humble beginnings of 1937, Progressive has flourished into one of the largest auto insurance groups in the country. They provide personal and commercial automobile insurance and other specialty property-casualty insurance. It was on March 10, 1937, when Joseph Lewis and Jack Green started Progressive Mutual Insurance Company. They were lawyers were looking for a good investment and wanted to provide vehicle owners with security and protection. From their beginnings, Progressive has been a front runner for new and innovative techniques to auto insurance. Progressive was the first auto insurer to offer drive-in claims service and to allow customers to pay their premiums in installments. One of Progressive goals is to make auto insurance accessible and easy so more people could protect their vehicles and in return bring big profits. Progressive has experience an upswing up growth since the early 50??™s and which help fuel the decision to become a public company in 1971. In 1987, Progressive surpassed $1 billion in premiums and that same year the New York Stock Exchange listed their stock under the PGR symbol (Progressive, 2009). They currently have over 28,000 employees in more than 450 offices throughout the country. Progressive business philosophy was to approach auto insurance in an innovative way, setting them apart from their competitors. Progressive is definitely utilizing the first-mover advantage, which is a strategy that companies use to gain a competitive edge. First-mover advantage is defined as the benefit a company can gain by introducing a product or service before its competitors. Progressive has had a host of accolades and achievements (Progressive, 2009): ??? In 1990, Progressive introduced Immediate Response?® claims service, which is available 24/7, to provide customers with personal service and support immediately after they have reported a claim. ??? In 1994, Progressive was the first to introduce Immediate Response?® Vehicle (IRV), which is a specially marked vehicle that brought trained claims professionals to wherever customers needed them. ??? In 1995, Progressive was the first major auto insurer in the world to launch a Web site, which push them ahead of their competitors by gaining momentum in the online world. ??? In 2003, Progressive was the first to launch a concierge level of claim service by allowing customers to drop off their cars at a claims service center for repairs and they pick their customers up once the repairs are complete. ??? In 2008, Progressive.com earns the No.1 spot on the Keynote Systems Q4 2008 Insurance Carrier Scorecard and has won every scorecard published since 2004 and has held the top spot for 13 of the last 14 scorecard rankings published since 2000. By Progressive being the first auto insurer it placed them at the forefront of the online world of technology, giving them an edge over their competitors like State Farm, Allstate, GEICO, and USAA. Progressive is known for being one of the more innovative insurance companies. Many consumers would agree the reason they utilize the internet is because of lower prices, convenience, and personalization; Progressive gives consumers those more times over. Some of the benefits of Progressive using e-commerce are increasing revenue, ability to reach more consumers, and saving the company money in the process. Also, a benefit e-commerce provides within the workplace is that it allows people to work more effectively by enabling employees to telecommute. Progressive has a vast array items that can be done on their site, such as (Progressive, 2009): ??? Policy Service and Management ??” which allows policyholders to log in to update information, make payments, get vehicle recall information and more. ??? Online Claims Reporting ??” allows policyholders to log in to report auto accidents and glass claims. ??? Rate Ticker ??” which shows a scrolling rate ticker displaying actual Progressive Direct auto insurance rates side-by-side with those of other top auto insurers. ??? Agent Locator ??” allows anyone to search for local independent insurance agents by entering a ZIP code or by selecting the type of insurance one would like to buy. ??? Talk to Me ??” is Progressive??™s online customer service feature that uses Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology to allow online shoppers who have questions about their Progressive Direct auto insurance quote to click on an icon and talk to a representative over the Internet or have a representative call them directly. ??? Instant Quotes ??” allows anyone who wants to purchase online or through an agent, to be able to receive online insurance quotes. In conclusion, Progressive has proved that much success can be gain through e-commerce. They have set the staged for their competitors to follow but Progressive is very keen on technology and truly understands its value. Progressive is definitely on the right path with utilizing e-commerce and is showing continued success over their competitors. Their use of the e-commerce business solution in their line of business has proved the benefits to e-commerce. Progressive use of e-commerce has help increase speed and accuracy with which they can exchange information, which reduces costs on both sides of the fence. In complete support of Progressive??™s current e-business process, they should continue with their innovative ideas on servicing consumers online. Progressive will continue to thrive by offering increasingly innovative products and services. ReferencesCrane, M., Farrell, M., LaMotta, L. & Nelson, B. (2008). Try These Innovative Marketing Techniques. Retrieved September 29, 2008, from Forbes website: http://www.forbes.com/2008/09/29/small-business-marketing-ent-sales- cx_mf_0929innovativemarketing.htmlKurtz, D. (2008). Contemporary Marketing (13th ed.): Lachina Publishing ServicesProgressive, Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Progressive website: http://www.progressive.com/progressive-insurance/history.aspxSchneider, G. (2009). Electronic Commerce (8th ed.): GEX Publishing ServicesWikipedia, Retrieved June 4, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_commerceWikipedia, Retrieved June 2, 2009, from Wikipedia website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Corporation ———————–
Coping With Electronic Commerce1
How People Make Economic Decisions 2
Four Principals of Individual Decision Making
People Face Trade offs
Making individual decisions requires that some type of exchange or trade off occurs. A
decision will always have an effect, or consequence. A great example would be to look at
the situation in Iraq. The US Government has been spending substantial amounts of money
to have troops occupy Iraq, this expenditure seeps into the budget of spending and investing
to raise this country??™s standard of living.
As we go through a decision making process, one aspect to consider is to compare the
costs and benefits associated with an alternative course of action. A simple example is to
examine the costs and benefits of going to school. Even though the benefits of school will be
obtaining a degree and knowledge, an opportunity cost may be the time spent at school
takes away from the hours spent working and earning money.
Rational people recognize that decisions are rarely straight forward and easy. Economists
use the term ???marginal changes??™ to describe small incremental adjustments to an existing
plan of action (Mankiw, G, p6, Principles of Economics, 2007).
An example of this is a company that manufacturers goods. Hypothetically, workers are paid
$9 an hour to package frozen dinners. In an 8 hour shift 500 frozen dinners are packaged, if
the workers have to work overtime, the company has to pay them $3 an hour more- which is
the marginal cost for additional frozen dinners to be packaged. The marginal benefit is
increased volume, and therefore revenue.How People Make Economic Decisions 3Incentive
Incentives are a vital part in individual decision making. An example of how incentives
drive our decision making can be related to gas taxes and small vehicles. Amongst other
reasons, continents like Europe and Australia drive smaller cars because they are more fuel
efficient, which is an incentive due to the high gasoline taxes in these parts of the world.Comparing Marginal Costs and Benefits in Personal Decision Making An example in which I compared marginal costs and marginal benefits is when I was
deciding which University to attend. Following my research in Universities in LA and which
would best meet my goals and needs, I narrowed it down to two Institutions; Pepperdine
and Phoenix. Both of these Universities met my major needs and goals, however there were
small differences that impacted my final decision.
Obviously, my final decision was Phoenix. The marginal benefits associated with this
decision included the time frame in which I could finish my degree. Although both
Universities offered a program for the full time working adult, Phoenix offered an accelerated
option in which I could finish even quicker. This met my goal of completing my degree as
quick as possible.
The marginal cost in my decision to attend Phoenix related to the lack of prestige
associated with the brand name Pepperdine carries. Even though Phoenix is a legitimate
University, Pepperdine is an older institution with a renowned business school, in the real
world this may be taken in consideration in employment situations.
How People Make Economic Decisions 4 Incentives that could have led me to make a different decision is if Pepperdine had a
program in which additional classes could be taken that would enable me to finish my
degree in less than 2 years.Explain how the principles of economics affect decision-making, interaction, and the workings of the economy as a whole.
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Coping Styles and Psychological Preparation
Axia College-University of PhoenixA cardiac cauterization has been scheduled for Gerry a 64-year-old male, he will be tested for any cardiovascular disorder. Gerry is alert and motivated to determine what may be the cause of the chest pain and shortness of breath he has been experiencing. Because Gerry has responded to his symptoms in a responsible way by immediately seeking medical care and trying to determine the cause behind his illness, one may deem Gerry one who is dealing with his issue with problem-focused coping efforts. (Associated Content, 2009). Though; Gerry??™s primary coping strategy is one motivated by problem-solving, Gerry is showing additional signs of emotional response because he has not confided in his wife about the symptoms he has been going through.
I believe that because Gerry displays a style of coping that is problem-focused or one displayed by individuals who use attention as a coping method. It is my belief that the best psychological preparation method for Gerry to apply is that of informational control. Although people normally go through anxiety as, he or she prepare for any type of medical procedure, the informational method permits an individual to understand the steps that they will go through and respond in a positive manner. Decreasing Gerry??™s anxiety by having the appropriate information may allow Gerry to respond in a positive manner to his pending procedure. References
Associated Content Inc. (2009). Two Different Coping Strategies: Problem-Focused Vs. Emotional-Focused Coping. Retrieved on August 24, 2010, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1051057/two_different_coping_strategies_problemfocused.htmlcat=5
Axia College of University of Phoenix. (2007). In The Hospital: The Setting, Procedures, and Effects on Patients. Retrieved August 24, 2010, from Axia College, Week Six reading, aXcess, HCA 250-The Psychology of Health course web site..
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Individual decision making is based on ten principles; four of the ten principles are people face trade-offs, the cost of something is what you give up to get it, rational people think at the margin, and people respond to incentives. Purchasing a new vehicle encompasses all of these principles where one needs to compare the marginal benefits and the marginal costs. In my experience of purchasing a new car and comparing the marginal benefits with the marginal costs, I compared a Toyota Matrix and a Kia Spectra 5.
Fairleigh Dickinson University
How People Make Economic Decisions
Individual decision making in regards to economics includes trade-offs, giving something to get what you want, rational people thinking at the margin, and people responding to incentives. People facing trade-offs requires a person to give up one thing to acquire another. The cost of giving something to get what you want involves giving something of value now to reap a long term gain. Rational people think at the margin and establish plans to accomplish specific goals while allowing the possibility for adjustment to their plan, (Mankiw, 2007). Incentives are how many rational people base their decision making. An incentive could cause a person to alter their original plan because the incentive could make more sense for their given situation.
Deciding the Marginal Benefits and Costs
Last year I was researching the automobile market to buy a new car. The price of oil skyrocketed and my current vehicle at the time was an SUV getting about 17-20 mpg. Earlier that year, I accepted a job that required me to drive 30 miles each way and I found myself spending a considerable amount of money on fuel. Although, fuel economy was the main motivation for purchasing a new vehicle at that time, I also took into consideration what I was willing to sacrifice to purchase the car. The budget for the new car purchase was no more than $15,000.00. The car budget and the features I was looking for had me considering the Toyota Matrix and the Kia Spectra 5.
The Toyota Matrix??™s cost was $15,200.00 and I could get the Kia Spectra 5 for $14,200.00. Although, I wanted the Toyota because I preferred its look and I was familiar with Toyota??™s quality, but the Kia offered a seven year/100,000 mile warranty. The marginal benefits and the marginal cost that I had to consider was that I preferred the look of the Toyota more and liked its reliability record, but the cost to own it was greater. In the end, I chose the Kia because I was not willing to pay the higher price to own a car that will serve the same purpose as the less expensive car.
Incentives and How the Principles of Economics Affect Decision Making
If Toyota offered cash back incentives coupled with a large enough discount on an extended warranty than I may have chosen the Toyota instead. The principles of economics affect decision making in all things that people need and want. People react to the economy and apply the principles of economics which can have a major effect on interaction. The state of the economy whether good or bad can have a major effect on trade both domestically and internationally. Consumers respond to prices, incentives, and rational decision making to purchase goods. When the principles of economics are applied by consumers and sellers of goods, the inner workings of the economy as a whole are directly affected.
The Principles of economics is based on human behavior and how it affects the economy. Marginal benefits and marginal costs coupled with incentives have a direct impact on how people spend their money. These decisions have a major effect both positive and negative on the economy as a whole. The decision making of the consumer can dictate the state of the economy and how manufactures interact with consumers. This interaction can also have a major affect on the global economy as well. References
Mankiw, N.G. (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). Mason, OH Cengage Learning Retrieved from: http://ecampus.phoenix.edu/classroom/ic/classroom.aspx
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Learning from a leader
Transformational leaders will inspire their learners through what they have learned and encourage them (Leggat, 2009). A leader will give the learners support and show new ways to handle COPD (Leggat, 2009). This leader will help learners to manage their disease, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Leggat, 2009). A leader will show the learners how important it is to:
* Stop smoking (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).
* Good oral care to reduce infections (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).
* The proper use of inhalers, bronchodilators (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).
* Take medicine as directed by the doctor (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).
* The proper use of oxygen therapy and neubulization therapy (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).
* Give referrals to breathing conditioning programs (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).For Help
1. The Breath and Lung Institute at Hackensack University Medical Center (“Www.humc.com – Breath and Lung Institute,” 2010)
30 Prospect Avenue, Hackensack, NJ 07601, 201-996-2211 (“Www.humc.com – Breath and Lung Institute,” 2010)
2. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
3. State of New Jersey
4. British Lung Foundation
www.lunguk.orgMichele C. De Vito, RN, CRN
193 Johnson Avenue
Dumont, New Jersey 07628
Phone: 201-280-0511CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)
Do not SMOKE!!! (Microsoft, 2010)
85 % of people with COPD SMOKE (Warren, 2009)
What is copd
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a chronic disease which affects breathing. This chronic disease does not get better and will get worse over time (Glastonbury, 2009). A person will get this chronic disease if they smoke or exposed to pollutants over a long period of time (Glastonbury, 2009). A person will not be able to breathe and give the body the air it needs to survive.
Facts about COPd
* Fourth leading cause of death (Carlin, 2007).
* Death is increasing in numbers instead of decreasing over time (Carlin, 2007).
* Smoking causes COPD (Medbo & Melbye, 2008).
* People age 50 to 60 are more likely to get COPD if they smoked (Medbo & Melbye, 2008).
* A person may become depressed because of COPD, the symptoms and restrictions this disease causes (Warren, 2009).
* Women get COPD more than men because more women are smoking over men (“Free Breather: COPD Statistics,” 2009).
anatomy of COPD
When a person takes a breath in, the air gets stuck in the little branches called respiratory bronchioles, air sacs called alveoli and air ducts called alveolar ducts that fill lungs (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008). When this air is stuck in the tract, this will lead to respiratory infections (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008). When a person with COPD is sick all the time their lungs can??™t heal and their airway is restricted (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008). symptoms
A person can tell they have COPD by the symptoms they have (Medbo & Melbye, 2008).
* Coughing and making copious amounts of sputum (Medbo & Melbye, 2008).
* Wheezing (Medbo & Melbye, 2008).
* Little or no breath sounds, wheezing or crackles, will be heard when the doctor listens to a person??™s lungs (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).
* Use of accessory muscles to breathe (Davenport, Estridge, & Zygmont, 2008).————————————————-
* X-ray ??“ a picture of a person??™s lungs with a specials camera (Glastonbury, 2009).
* ABG??™s (Arterial Blood Gases) – taking a sample of a person??™s blood for testing to see if there is enough oxygen and not too much carbon dioxide (Glastonbury, 2009).
* Spirometry – a test to measure how fast and how much a person takes a breath in and out (Glastonbury, 2009). ways to Help you breathe easier in the future
* Stop smoking (Glastonbury, 2009).
* Take medicine as prescribed by the doctor (Glastonbury, 2009).
* Stay away from others who are sick (Glastonbury, 2009).
* Get plenty of exercise and know limitations (Glastonbury, 2009).
* Stay away from pollution in the air (Warren, 2009).
* Do things slowly to conserve energy and ask for help (Glastonbury, 2009).
* Wear clothes that are loose fitting (Glastonbury, 2009).
How people make Economic decisions
ECO/212 Principles of Economics
July 6, 2011
How people make Economic decisions
Economics played a major role in what, when, where, and even how consumers purchase products. When a consumer wants to buy a product, he or she thinks about the money, before spending. The buyers may believe that spending that money is not worth it. Consumers think about the cost of what they give up in that specific product or item. The buyers are rational thinkers and wait for the opportunity to arise before spending their hard earn cash on products or items. Many consumers respond to incentives when wanting to buy a product and wait for a big sale to spend the money.
Marginal benefit is an additional satisfaction or utility that a person receives from consuming an additional unit of a good or service. A consumer is willing to pay to consume the additional good or service provided. When the High Definition Televisions came out many consumers purchase the televisions without considering the fact on the long term effect. Many consumers did not do research on the televisions to make sure that the television were durable, easy to maintain, and easy for the consumer to use. The buyers need to be patient and wait for the special sales or deals on the products.
The United States Economy needs to be dealt with by the government and the people need to express their concerns about how this affects the consumers. The economy has to be revamp and give the consumers what they want. Many of the buyers just want to spend money on any products without possessing that risk in the long term effect on maintenance. One prime example of a money-saving issue is the gas prices. The government has enough oil reserves all over the world and within the United States itself. The United States government does not need to export oil from other foreign countries, but it does. When the government purchases the oil this raises the prices up and hurts the Unites States economy. Congress can mandate that oil reserves be use instead of the foreign resources. Doing this action would help the economy to drop gas prices and make consumers use more of the product. The consumer needs to focus on how we spend our money and do not let the sellers fool us out of our money.Reference
Hubbard, G. R. (2010). Economics: Foundations and Models (3rd Ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Prentice Hall.
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Cultural Similarities and Differences: Mexico and Venezuela
Cultural similarities and differences of Mexico and Venezuela are at times difficult to measure and sometime to observe if not immersed within the two cultures. Each country is proud of their cultural heritage and are, to their people obviously unique. Mexico and Venezuela are Spanish speaking countries with each possessing their own dialect and inflection on the language. This is the same with many of the customs found in each of these countries. We will examine four areas; Visual Arts, Dance, Music, and Theater to illustrate the many similarities and differences within each of these cultures.
Visual Arts in Mexico and Venezuela are very important in both countries because it focuses and emphasize their culture, their geographical profile and history. Through its paintings and galleries it can be express on how important their country is to them. For example muralists, Diego Rivera from Mexico has been identifying as the best painter for its 1933 mural titled ???Man at the Crossroads.??? Another famous artist in Mexico who is known for her paintings that reflect realism, symbol, and indigenous culture of Mexico is Frida Kahlo; she expresses her physical connection to her country through her paintings. In Venezuela Rosalba Gudino, is known as a fused glassed artist. Milan Kriz whom became a citizen of Venezuela in 1983 and lives in Caracas Venezuela became a popular artist. His art pieces focus on a wide spectrum of classical and modern raw materials and techniques. Some sculptures are made from the following materials: wood, marble, coral, bronze, and even epoxy resin and bronze-ready positive originals in clay. The majority of his paintings are made of oil on canvas and oil on formic. Visual arts are very traditional in both countries because the traditions of their countries that they are proud off and express it through their arts and sculptures. Dance
Dance is considered a form of art which changes between different cultures and used as a way to express something, tell a story, something spiritual or even just for plain exercise. Cultures often change from country to country. However they can have similarities as well. Mexico and Venezuela both have different forms of dances that are considered traditional due to their culture.
Mexico like Venezuela have dances that give the country character that??™s helps the country??™s desire for a national identity. Mexico dances are made up by European and African heritages. They represent the important part of the country??™s pre-Hispanic history. Unfortunately, most these dances were eliminated or modified. However a few of the dances made it through the modification in which they have become popular which ended up creating the dances nationally and internationally especially after the Mexican War of Independence and the Mexican Revolution.
Just like Mexico, Venezuela??™s dances form an important part of the Venezuelan culture. Most of the dances in Venezuela were adapted from Europe in the 19th century. The national dance of Venezuela is Joropo which consists of 36 different steps while also being a dance for couples. Salsa is also one of the most popular dance forms in this country. However, salsa is also a popular dance form in Mexico as well.
Both culturally and historically, Mexico and Venezuela along with other countries in Central America, share much of the surrounding regions such sand dances and surrounding regions.Music
Mexico and Venezuela loves music no matter what part of the country you are in. With the research found Mexico and Venezuela have many similarities and very little differences when it comes to music. Each country embraces and celebrates their cultures music in their separate ways. Just as each country has their own dance, they also have their own music t go along with that dance.
Due to both countries being Spanish speaking countries, all of the lyrics to the music in both countries are in Spanish. Another similarity is the different and exotic instruments that are used in the countries music. Each country uses instruments that we may not use here in the United States.
When it comes to the differences in music, each country has their own tradition or commonly known music. For Mexico, the traditional music would the mariachi music, (“Mexican Music & Dance”,? 2012). For Venezuela their commonly known music is their own salsa, merengue and other imported styles, as well as the distinct? joropo and? llanero music, (“Carnaval.com Presents… Vz Music”,? 2006). Each instrument is used help bring that significant sound to each style of music. For example, with the mariachi music, you have the trumpets, guitars and violins that stand out to make that mariachi sound. With the music in Venezuela you have the Afro-Venezuelan instruments to give it that Venezuela n sound.
Early Theater in Mexico was developing in Spain around the time of the Spanish invasion. Spain continued influencing theater up until the Mexico revolution in the early 20th century. Around the early 19th century tent show was the new normal, these was mainly comedy plays it perfect opportunity for new thespians rather than performing in old theaters. In 20th century nationalism guided the Mexican Spanish to be the language use for writing plays. Modern day Mexican theater uses more dramatically Style Theater provided by different cultures and identities thru Mexico. This new international style of theater replaces the folklore and violence performances of previous century that was outdated.
Venezuela??™s theatre tradition began in the late 1700s and has been progressively growing ever since. The national theatre became established some thirty years ago, and is now based in Caracas. Venezuela is not noted for its cinema; few Venezuela organizes Festival International for theater in April every year. The festival is being held since 1976 and is rated as one of the best of the cultural events in Venezuela. It is marked by performances of some of the top theatre groups of Venezuela and Latin America. Some of the important theatres, which serve as the venue of these performances, are Teatro Teresa Carreno, Alteneo de Caracas and Teatro El Paraiso. films are made and foreign films are favored.
Mexico and Venezuela both share similar values and customs that are steeped in both countries cultural heritage that has been handed down from generation to generation. These are very proud people who embrace their historic past and intertwine this past with today??™s modern society. While Americans tend to move forward and leave the past behind it is on the contrary that these two countries strive to maintain their past way of life and bring it into their daily lives. Mexico and Venezuela are two countries with a proud heritage that share both similarities and differences making each unique in their own way of life.
Abenteuer (N.D) Retrieved from http://www.abenteuer-venezuela.de/eng/Facts%20About%20Venezuela%20eng.htm
Carnaval.com presents… VZ Music.? (2006).? Retrieved from http://carnaval.com/venezuela/music/
Mexican Music & Dance.? (2012).? Retrieved from http://www.elmonterey.com/extras/music-and-dance/
Milan Kriz (2005) Retrieved from http://www.milankriz.com/vitae_frames.htm
Venezuela Culture (2012) Retrieved from http://www.mapsofworld.com/venezuela/culture
What Latin America.com (N.D) Retrieved from http://www.whatlatinamerica.com/latin-theatre/mexico-theatre.html
Wikipedia Folk Dance of Mexico (2012) Retrieved from http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_dance_of_Mexico
40 Vacations (N.D) Retrieved from http://40vacations.com/venezuela/culture.php