Month: March 2017
Earth is one of the most beautiful planets in the universe. It supports life and numerous
species. But, today Earth is suffering many environmental problems. The water, air , soil, and
everything is polluted. The environmental situation are becoming worse day by day. What are
the most important issues impact our environment How to save earths environment Let us
discuss as following.
Global warming and climate change
Earths temperature increasing, which is directly connected to the percentage of CO2 present in
the earths atmosphere. The earth gets its warmth from the green house effect. Due to the increasing percentage of greenhouse gases, the temperature of the earth is increasing day by day. As a result, the worldwide sea level rising and climate changes a lot.DeforestationForests are an important part of the ecological cycle. They are a good source of oxygen, rainfall, moisture, etc. But deforestation has brought huge change in the ecological balance of the earth. It takes years for a tree to grow, but, every year approximately 16 million forests are cut down for different purposes. Consequently, it has resulted in a climate changing, less rainfall, soil erosion and wild animals be hurt, etc.Ozone Layer DepletionOzone is a protective layer which saves the earth from ultra harmful rays of the sun. But due to the emission of the gases, the ozone layer is getting depleted. If the emission of these harmful gases are not checked, the ozone layer will disappear very soon. This may make the human beings exposed under harmful radiations which can cause skin cancer. PollutionThere are many types of environmental pollution: water pollution, air pollution, soil pollution,
noise pollution, etc. All of these pollutions are very harmful. It can cause a serious impact on living beings.WasteThe amount of harmful and toxic wastes have increased. Many manufacture industries whichhave waste materials and do not process them properly; then, dumping it in land or water which results in the toxification of soil and water. OverpopulationAccording to the United Nations World Population Prospects report, the current population is growing by 74 million people per year approximately. It causes a very serious problems, like Insufficient land, resources, food, and other basic necessity.
As above mentioned, the earth suffers serious environmental problems. Without second
thinking, find out ways to save the beautiful planet-earth will be the most important issue. We
may use as following way:
Go Green to Save EarthTo save the planet we should go green. Plant more trees near your residence or workplace. Plant
a tree every month, encouraging your friends or coworkers to join you.
Save energy and water
Save energy can be reducing the energy crisis and saving our nature. By means of switch off all
electrical appliances when they are not in use. Try to avoid non renewable energy sources and
focus on renewable energy like solar energy. In addition, water is life. We cannot survive
without water, trying to save water, reserve rainwater and stop water pollution.
Life style change
* Use things which are not harmful to nature and can be recycled. For example, to stop using plastic bags and bottles or avoid using papers.
* Walk more, drive less. We may choose to walk short distances instead of taking your car every time. In order to save using gas and oil for your vehicles, trying to use bicycles or go walking to school or working place.
* Retrofitting your home with solar energy
* Starting a backyard garden composting, then, recycling food and garden wastes into your soil
* Choosing low-impact recreation, such as canoeing rather than jet-skiing
* living closer to your work place In conclusion, Earth was an abundant and benign planet that provided enough for everyone.
To be one of globe village citizens in earth, we have responsibility and obligation to cherish our
natural resources, making best effort to solve our environmental problems and improving our
living place. It has no doubt that we need to provide a wonderful planet-“Earth” for our
generations to live.
notes:1.global warming ??¦Edward F. Bergman and William H. Renwick
2.Lifestyle Changes??¦.Richard T. Wright and Dorothy F. Boorse
WINDOWS 7 KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS Switch between open windows? | Alt + Tab? |
Minimize/restore all but the active window? | Windows key + Home? |
Minimize all windows? | Windows key + M? |
Maximize window? | Windows key + up-arrow? |
Minimize/restore window? | Windows key + down-arrow? |
Make all windows transparent so you can see the desktop? | Windows key + spacebar? |
Dock window to left or right half of screen? | Windows key + left- or right-arrow? |
? ? (In the default view, you must zoom in before zooming out.)? | Windows key + plus/minus sign? |
Lock screen? | Windows key + L? |
Open Run dialog? | Windows key + R? |
Open Search box? | Windows key + F? |
Open Windows Explorer to computer? | Windows key + E? |
Expand Folders view in Win Explorer to show where you are? | Control + Shift + E? |
Go up a level in Windows Explorer? | Alt + up-arrow? |
Choose display mode/switch monitors
? ? (Especially useful for presenters or dual-monitor users)? | Windows key + P? |
Launch apps pinned to the Taskbar
? ? (1 is the left-most app; Windows Key+T cycles through all apps.)? | Windows key + (number 1-9)? |
Cycle through Gadgets? | Windows key + G? |
Rotate a picture clockwise
? ? (Or use comma for counterclockwise)? | Control + period? |
Use Control-click to select the pictures in a folder you need to rotate, then rotate them all at once.? |
Turn Sticky Keys on and off? | Press Shift five times? |
Although keyboard shortcuts can be real time-savers, sometimes its hard to press multiple keys at once, (especially while youre eating a sandwich or holding your phone in one hand). The Windows Sticky Keys feature lets you press one key at a time as you enter a shortcut. You can turn on Sticky Keys permanently by using the Control Panels Ease of Access Center options.? |
Turn Mouse Keys on and off? | Left-Alt + left-Shift + Num Lock? |
INTERNET EXPLORER SHORTCUTS
Shortcut | Command | How useful() |
GeneralInternet Explorer 8 |
F11 | Turn Full Screen Mode on or off | + ? ? ? ??“ |
TAB | Cycle through the Address Bar, Refresh button, Search Box, and items on a web page | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+F | Find a word or phrase on a page | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+N | Open the current webpage in a new window | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+P | Print the page | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+A | Select all items on the page | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+PLUS | Zoom in | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+MINUS | Zoom out | + ? ? ? ??“ |
CTRL+0 | Zoom to 100% | + ? ? ? ??“ | ? |
Navigation shortcutsInternet Explorer 8 | |
ALT+HOME | Go to home page | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
ALT+LEFT | Go backward | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
ALT+RIGHT | Go forward | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
F5 | Refresh page | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+F5 | Refresh page and the cache | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
ESC | Stop downloading page | + ? ? ? ??“ | | ? |
Favorites Center shortcutsInternet Explorer 8 | |
CTRL+I | Open Favorites | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+I | Open Favorites in pinned mode | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+B | Organize Favorites | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+D | Add current page to Favorites | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+J | Open Feeds | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+J | Open Feeds in pinned mode | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+H | Open History | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+H | Open History in pinned mode | + ? ? ? ??“ | | ? |
Tab shortcutsInternet Explorer 8 | |
Middle mouse button or CTRL+left mouse button | Open link in new background tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+left mouse button or CTRL+SHFT+middle mouse button | Open link in new foreground tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
Middle mouse button on the tab or CTRL+W | Close tab (closes window if only one tab is open) | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+Q | Open Quick Tab view | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+T | Open new tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+Q | View list of open tabs | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+TAB | Switch to next tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+TAB | Switch to previous tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | | ? |
Address Bar shortcutsInternet Explorer 8 | |
ALT+D | Select the Address Bar | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+ENTER | Add http://www. to the beginning and .com to the end of text in Address Bar | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+SHFT+ENTER | Add http://www. to the beginning and the website address suffix you have specified to the end of text in the Address Bar* | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
ALT+ENTER | Open the website address that is typed in the Address Bar in new tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
F4 | View list of previously typed addresses | + ? ? ? ??“ | | ? |
Instant Search BoxInternet Explorer 8 | |
CTRL+E | Select the Instant Search Box | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
CTRL+DOWN | View list of search providers | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
ALT+ENTER | Open search results in new tab | + ? ? ? ??“ | |
How Musicians Increasingly Rely on Stocks and Bonds The value of a cello or violin can go up or down just like the value of shares in a company. A depends on how the instrument is cared for. If is it mistreated, the value will go down. In addition, if it is treated correctly and cared for the value can go up. Another thing that affects the value of these instruments is the type of wood they are made out of. In order for a cello or violin to be liquidated, there would have to be people who are will to purchases them. As far as shares of stock in a major U.S. corporation, the shares can be liquidated easer, because they are being sold off and people are buying them. When you purchase a cello or violin, you own the instrument, which means you are the only one who has shares in it. When you purchase shares in a company, you are not the only one who has them which can make it easier to sell.
I think a cello or a violin could be more liquid than shares of stock of a major corporation. A musical instrument is a visual thing. Regular stock can go down quick. The value of a musical instrument is unlikely to go down as easily as regular stock is. Especially if the musician has talent. Good music is like a good wine aged to perfection.
The shares in a cello or a violin are less liquid because they are musical instruments. The value of a cello or violin depends greatly on the care put into keeping the instrument in its original condition and the depreciation value throughout the life of the instrument.
In terms of comparing shares in a cello or any other musical instrument for the matter and shares in a major U.S. corporation, I think that the value in any musical instrument can both increase and decrease over time. There is never a time that shares in a corporation do not have their moments of fluctuation. If you want to be realistic about the value of a cello or violin, as well as a car or computer for example, the value of the object can be determined by the care that is put into it over time. A cello or violin can be valued at a high price if over the years if it is kept in a safe place away from anything that could damage it. On the other hand, if it is left out for liquids to get inside it and for things to scratch it, it will definitely lose value. On the other hand, share in U.S. corporation involves more than one person having access or being involved with the shares, purchasing a house, car, phone service, etc. and of course a unique instrument, you are the only a shareholder. When investing and purchasing shares, stock, or anything valuable , you as a buyer have to make sure that you are making decisions that will benefit you in the best way.
In my opinion, after reading the web page “Whos Who in Bowie Bonds” it appears that the market value of the first Bowie Bonds would more than likely become very valuable because of David Bowies come back. To me is seems that the value of the bonds would increase with his comeback. The theory of efficient markets would not apply to the shares of stock in cellos, violins, or rock bands because they are not liquid-able. Rock bands eventually fade out while the cellos and violins depreciate over the life of each instrument. Although these instruments and the rock bands have seen an increase in the sale of shares, it is sometimes very hard to get investors who are willing to invest in either.
The theory of efficient markets cannot apply to shares of stocks in cellos or violins because those are musical instruments and there is no actual exchange for musical instrument although they can be very valuable pieces of antiques. However, shares can be sold from a band and the revenues from CDs sold would be shared among the company, band members and investors.
Controversy in Hip Hop Subculture
For the last ten years hip hop has state one as one of the most popular, and successful type of music here in the United States. Artists are successfully becoming rich in these short amounts of time as being a result of selling millions of copies of their albums. The music of hip hop has been a controversial topic for many years because of its offensive lyrics, and influence of violence to the general public. Activists are fighting to pass a measure in congress that would possibly restrict rappers from using their negative lyrics. Their goal is to save the reputation of hip hop and stop the bad usage of curse words, and offensive messages to certain groups of people. People would not stop acting violent if censorship would be enforced to hip hop.
Censorship is not the answer for solving the issue of violence in the society. The reason why hip hop is so popular is because the rappers are allowed their freedom of speech and express themselves in their songs the way they chose to. Some rappers write about the things that they experience for example being in the clubs, growing up in poor neighborhoods, spending money and of course women. This relates to how some teenagers or even adults live their lives and even if they do not live this life they get an outlook of what the lifestyle is like based on the lyrics that they hear.
When it comes to women in the hip hop world there is a lot of controversy. Most people say that the way many rappers put these women in their videos is degrading to most women and shows that most men have no self-respect for them as individuals. As Hannah O??™Connor stated, ???Hip hop and the so-called gangsta rap sub-genre in particular is notorious for the exploitation of women and sexually explicit lyrics, there??™s no doubt about it. Politician and anti-rap activist C. Delores Tucker called the genre “pornographic fifth,” claiming that it was demeaning and offensive to African-American women.??? Most women that are in these videos have no shame in showing off their body but this is where the question comes in about women having more respect for their selves. This is one of the controversies that may need more attention.
???Some people, like John H. McWhorter in a 2003 article for City Journal, believe that hip-hop and rap music glorify violence, drug use and misogyny and influence listeners to commit crimes. Others, like rapper Xzibit, believe that hip-hop and rap music are merely a result of a tough, urban lifestyle and that artists are merely reflecting on the lifestyle they are forced to grow up in??? (Glimore). This is not necessarily true hip hop and rap music does not influence its listeners to commit any type of crime. People can control their actions and what they do it is not the music that they listen to. If a person is easily persuaded to do something just because of what a song says then obviously they do not need to listen to any music at all because not just hip hop music is offensive music. In ways Xzibit is right because many rappers in today??™s society just like the ones in the early beginning of hip hop rapped about their tough and hard lifestyle and what they all encountered coming up in the world.
Drug use is another controversy in the hip hop subculture. In most of the rap songs that are made today you hear many rappers talk about their love for what they call ???Mary Jane??? which is another word for marijuana. ???Admittedly the use of cannabis seems to be culturally accepted within the hip hop world (despite being an illegal substance in a vast majority of countries worldwide), as is explained in a 2006 XXL editorial by Byron Crawford, which called substance abuse “The new fourth element of hip-hop.” In the genre??™s lyricism, however, for just about every reference in favor drug abuse, there is one against??? (Stweart). In many ways marijuana is used constantly in most of the songs rappers make today. Marijuana is glorified by many rappers even though it is wrong and shouldn??™t be used it is still said that if other rappers can talk about it then others rappers should be able to voice their own opinion too.
Violence is said to be the most common controversy in hip hop. Many say that the violent things that are being done today are coming from the music that is being listened to. This is not true at all hip hop has a less influence in encouraging people to act violently. It is clear to say that hip hop has a small percent roll in why people act violent. ???Many overlook the powerful message of fighting oppression that such symbols represent. Critics are quick to recognize the word ???gun??™ in hip hop lyricism and seem to develop selective hearing with the messages that follow??? (Malone & Martinez). People have their own minds and control what they do and how they act it is not necessarily the media that has anything to do with the amount of violence being done in today??™s society. If the music and videos people watch today is that influencing then it along with many other music genres would be banned and prohibited.
The controversy within the hip hop culture will always be there. There is always going to be something that is going to come up to make people think why is this music still being made and why are these rappers still rapping and talking about the same thing. The different controversies that goes on within the subculture is what makes it what it is today. If there were no controversy in subcultures then most subcultures would not be what they are today and still growing. When people are involved in a certain subculture they are going to put their all into it to see and make sure that that subculture grows. Subcultures are just like big families that will do whatever it takes to stay together no matter what. Works Cited
Stewart, Jesse. “Real To Reel: Filmic Constructions Of Hip Hop Cultures And Hip Hop Identities.” Interdisciplinary Humanities 26.2 (2009): 49-67. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Mar. 2012.
Malone, Christopher, and George Martinez. “The Organic Globalizer: The Political Development Of Hip-Hop And The Prospects For Global Transformation.” New Political Science 32.4 (2010): 531-545. Academic Search Complete. Web. 21 Mar. 2012.
O??™Connor, Hannah. ???Controversy in Hip Hop: Misogyny, Violence, Weed & Hypersexuality.??? Rap/Hip Hop Music. (2010).Web. 22 Mar. 2012
village. He began to judge the peasants and even persecute innocence. ???Simon was summoned. The case was tried, and retired, and at the end of it all Simon was acquitted, there being no evidence against him.??? (Tolstoy, 962)
Finally perserverence was a theme that wasnt to seen as other themes out shined this one. Going past everything else Pakhom was he was an extremely perserverant person. His will to gain as much land as he could led him to do many things most people wouldnt even dare. Even making deals with the devil inspite of not knowing so. He was pretty perserverant on making his land even. ???I have made the sides too long; I must make this one shorter.??? (Tolstoy, 970). Near the end of the story Pakhom is running out of time so he runs even near death. ???Pakhom was seized with terror lest he should die of the strain Though afraid of death, he could not stop.???(Tolstoy, 970). The theme was he wanted to perservere to get his land so badly he gave up his life for it. ??? He saw that blood was flowing from his mouth. Pakhom was dead!???( Tolstoy, 970). These hidden themes were the themes youd normally not see in the widespread of things. Looking deeper into whats behind the things youll catch first is harder. Hidden themes are some of the harder things to find and understand. As for the story itself the themes show itself. Pakhom was greedy and perserverant for his land. May people were Prejudice. All it really takes is to have patience and look carefully.
Source and Article.Article:
How Much Money does a man needSourceLittell, Mcdougal. World Literature, ???How Much Land does a Man Need??? Page 951-958. Austin, Texas. 2008. Print
Organized crime is a huge problem that the world has been fighting for years. Organized crime has been glorified is such movies as Hoodlum, Casino, and Belly. Movies such as these have given many people the perception that organized crime is a good thing, due to the money, power, and respect that is comes with. According to Organized Crime (2007), to a great extent these images form the basis for stereotyping what the public generally perceives as organized crime. However, these images fail to portray organized crime realistically. The truth is that organized crime is a huge problem that affects the world in a very negative manner. In this paper, the author will explain what organize crime really is, the negative impact that it causes to lives and the economy, the legal limitations of it, and realistic solutions to combat organized crime. Organized crime can be defined as a group of 3 or more that is organized structurally for illegal purposes such as drug dealing, political corruption, violence, and/or money laundering. The causes of individuals joining these groups can stem from many reasons such as the Alien Conspiracy Theory, Differential Association, Anomie, and/or many others.
Problems Presented with Organized Crime
The economy and law abiding citizens are mostly affected by organized crime groups. According to Organized Crime (2007), it states that citizens are sometimes the direct victims of organized crime enterprises by methods of violence, extortion, intimidation, etc.). Secondly, billions of dollars of tax revenue from organized crime go uncollected (estimated at $37 billion in lost taxes every year), resulting in higher tax rates for law abiding citizens. Thirdly, expenses related to law enforcement, criminal prosecution, and imprisonment of convicted members create a substantial drain on the economy of any community. Organized crime has created a huge impact on many communities that are striving to achieve a safe and law abiding community free of violence and criminal activity. It has torn down communities that were once a nice place to stay and has stereotyped it as a bad crime infested neighborhood that no one wants to live in, business owners began to leave, homeowners sell their property and move away, and poverty is prevalent.
Relationships Established by Organized Crime
The relationships established by organized crime are brought on by power, money, and greed. Many groups will form bonds of control. For example, there are many different Crip gangs claiming different areas just in Southern California alone. Two different neighborhood gangs join forces and call for a truce to overtake the revenue or territory of another gang. Even though they are all categorized as Crips, these groups are only loyal to themselves, their particular gang, and purpose. They will join forces to eliminate another in order to gain the money that they were making from their drug sells. There are personal relationships that are formed in the case of Madam St. Clair and her gang.
Madam St. Clair and her Gang was an organized crime group that was in existence during the 1920??™s. The entire group works as a cohesive group that involve themselves in illegal activity such as the numbers racket and bookkeeping to make money and protect their business ventures. The bonds that formed the group are so closely related that each entity protects the others and have an allegiance to protect the boss. These groups are structured in a Patrimonial/Patron-Client Model with a boss at the top that makes decisions and people in position under her that carry out her orders, such as Ellsworth ???Bumpy??? Johnson. Each person in the group has a duty, responsibility, and obligation to the group and its??™ sole purposes, which was to make money. For example, Ellsworth ???Bumpy??? Johnson who was her right hand man that she trusted to carry out her instructions, she personally confided in him about business matters, and for personal protection even if it cost him his own life. Within the organization there were many other people under Bumpy Johnson. None was as close to Madam St. Clair as he was, yet they were all loyal and down for her cause.
Empirical and Speculative Theories Related to Organized Crime
Empirical and speculative theories are used when referring to organized crime and criminal behavior. Some the theories that pertained to organized crime and Madam St. Clair??™s and her gang are Smith??™s Enterprise Theory, Socioeconomic Stratification, Differential Opportunity, and Alien Conspiracy Theory.
Smith??™s Enterprise Theory
Smith??™s Enterprise Theory is when legitimate businesses turn to criminal activities to produce more money and customers. In the case of Madam St. Clair??™s Gang, many businesses such as barber shops, soda shops, and night clubs serve as bookkeeping and number??™s facilities to make more money. Regular customers could go into these business as if they were carrying on with their normal routines and turn in their numbers discreetly, instead of this being done in the public eye.
Socioeconomic Stratification is explains the need of the community, Sugar Hill: Harlem 1900??™s, to find other means besides work to produce more income into the home. People could bet hard earned nickels and dimes??™ and turn it into several times that amount. The residents??™ of Harlem saw that illegal money was being made from the numbers running game with minimal amount of negative repercussions from law enforcement. At this time, it was the social normal for the community as well as accepted by residents.
Sutherland??™s Differential Opportunity
According to Organized Crime (2007), sociologist Sutherland (1973: 5), believes that criminal behavior is learned as a result of associations with others, and the propensity for innovating through criminality depends on the strength of these associations. Sutherland argues that criminal behavior occurs when definitions favorable to violation of the law exceed definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. Sutherland suggests that factors such as deprivation, limited access to legitimate alternatives, and exposure to innovative success models (i.e., pimps, gamblers, or drug dealers) create a susceptibility to criminal behavior. The bookkeeper??™s and others in the area began to make a considerable amount of money, so others began to follow in their footsteps and learn how to play and organize to get a piece of the pie.
Alien Conspiracy Theory
The Alien Conspiracy Theory explains the fact that for 1900??™s Harlem Madam St. Clair and her Gang was largely accepted by other residents. The gang was famed for bring in revenue to the people and city of Harlem. According to Understanding Organized Crime (2007), the text states that there is evidence that many organized crime groups organized themselves around ethnic backgrounds (Abadinsky, 1985). Madam St. Clair brought the numbers game to Harlem using her own money from her birth place of Martinique and it was accepted in to the relatively black community of Harlem.
Legal Limitations to Combat Organized Crime
Law enforcement agencies have devised many ways to combat organized crime. New technology has become a helpful tool in the war on organized crime with the help of organized list such as the Interpol, computers systems that quickly transfer information, technological cameras, and specialized agencies to handle different aspect of reporting information of organized crime groups. According to Interpol (2013), Interpol is the world??™s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Our role is to enable police around the world to work together to make the world a safer place. Our high-tech infrastructure of technical and operational support helps meet the growing challenges of fighting crime in the 21st century. Even though law enforcement agencies are at the top of their mark on combating organized crime groups and activities, they still have a ways to go, due to criminals constantly finding ways to elude the law and some countries relentless efforts to get involved with Interpol.
One of the key reasons that law enforcement cannot effectively combat organized crime is because of the restrictions place on them by the Federal and State Constitutions. Federal and State constitutions create laws that not only protect law abiding citizens, but there are laws that are in place to protect criminals. The United States laws are broken up into jurisdictions that create and enforce their own laws of investigation, apprehension, and prosecution. Even though these laws are there to protect citizens, there are many dysfunctional processes in communication within the system. The criminals are very smart when it comes to the law. They are of these dysfunctional processes and take advantage of them for their own personal gain. For example, certain law enforcement agencies do not have to report information that they have gathers to other agencies, in order to keep the proper lines of communication open for the proper apprehension of criminal organizations. Some of these problems stem from the regulations and laws that pertain to different jurisdictions and their procedures.
Realistic Solutions to Control Organized Crime
One possible solution of communication problem between agencies and jurisdiction is that united laws need to be written for the apprehension of organized crime groups and its members. There should be a universal system with a computerized technology to compute information, so that any and every agencies can use it and the information can be transmitted in a matter of seconds. Different restrictions within agencies in a major setback to how criminal are brought to justice. If all agencies had open access to information on organized crime groups, more information could be added at any time or obtain to help bring them to justice in a more uniformed manner. Then criminals cannot run from one jurisdiction to another, using their knowledge of the law, to escape extradition in any manner. Investigations can flow more smoothly due to communications practices being more effective. Officers will never feel like their hard work has come to an end and that they are not a part of the process to see the criminals arrested. This can also help in the reduction of dismissed cases, dropped charges, and false arrest.
Laws to Control Organized Crime
The United States has several laws over the years for the purpose of arresting, prosecuting, and investigating organized crime members. The most recognized law is the Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations or RICO (18 USC Chapter 96). The RICO Act is a federal law written as part of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. Racketeering is classified as a crime that takes place through or while undertaking an illegal business or commercial venture. The activity of racketeering is neither specific to solely illegal nor legal business operations. A wide array of the types of Racketeering exists. (Laws.com, 2013) This law allows for anyone who knowingly and willfully became members of domestic or international criminal organizations or known associates of such organizations and engaged in organized criminal behavior to be investigated, arrested, prosecuted and sentenced to a minimum of five years and up to $20,000 in fines as well as forfeiture of any and all assets in their possession. This law is effective in fighting organized crime there needs to be more laws in place that coincide with this one to be effective.
In conclusion, organized crime groups are violating the liberties and laws of how this nation was designed. Movies have given different people in society the notion that being a part of an organized crime group is a famed position. Movies make being a glorified gangster or criminal look easy and that law enforcement agencies have a hard time trying to investigate and apprehend them. The truth is that law enforcement agencies are well more advances that those depicted in movies, even though there are a few dysfunctional processes that need to be worked out. And as criminals are getting smarter, so is law enforcement.
Interpol. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.interpol.int/ ? Laws.com. (2013). Retrieved from http://criminal.laws.com/ricoLyman, M. D., & Potter, G. W. (2007). Organized Crime (4th ed.). Retrieved from University of Phoenix.Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding Organized Crime. Retrieved from University of Phoenix.
Prof. Blanton / Coldren
2 April 2010
How Much is that Paralysis in The Window
As Gabriel is introduced into the annual dinner party in ???The Dead,??? so is paralysis, in a rather subtle but nonetheless effective manner in which to associate paralysis directly with Gabriel. The narrator points out that ???[o]n his hairless face there scintillated restlessly the polished lenses and the bright gilt rims of the glasses which screen his delicate and restless eyes??? (178). Next, Gabriel??™s eyes are described as ???admiring and happy eyes [that] had been wandering from [Gretta??™s] dress to her face and hair??? (180). While eye movement in a normal, healthy adult may seem insignificant, a paralyzed individual??™s movement may be restricted literally to his or her eyes alone; Gabriel??™s eyes being ???restless??? is an early hint to his paralysis, introduced even before his struggle with wanting to leave Dublin, as he does not act but simply observes only by the use of his eyes.
Within this party are the instrumental figures that Joyce uses to convey the grasp paralysis has on Gabriel. When Gabriel is debating with Miss Ivors, she is attempting to persuade his traveling to be within Ireland, or in other words, remaining an insider. Feeling defensive yet desirous to remain civil, Gabriel is left in a paralytic state, as in his response to Miss Ivors??™ harangues, he ???continued blinking his eyes and trying to smile??? (188). Through this uncomfortable situation, both with the tone of the conversation as well as the topic of traveling inside or outside of Ireland, he is left not actually smiling, but trying to smile; reappearing also is the movement of Gabriel??™s eyes, rather than a more noticeable physical movement or utterance of speech. This conversation, however, finally brings out Gabriel??™s desire to leave, as he expresses to Miss Ivors, ???I??™m sick of my own country, sick of it! (190). As Gabriel??™s partial paralysis is actualized in this point of the story for the reader as well as for Gabriel, Joyce??™s mechanism through which he drives the notion of paralysis is introduced in the form of windows, which show both the reader as well as Gabriel what is offered inside, and what one can see but does not actually have, on the outside.
Gabriel??™s warm trembling fingers tapped the cold pane of the window. How cool it must be outside! How pleasant it would be to walk out alone, first along by the river and then through the park! The snow would be lying on the branches of trees and forming a bright cap on the top of the Wellington Monument. How much more pleasant it would be there than at the supper table! (192).
As the reappearing reference to the Wellington Monument surfaces, so does the notion of going westward, both of which are realized through the frame of the window. The tension building up Gabriel??™s desire for the outside world is emphasized, both on the way home from the party as well as once Gabriel and Gretta are settling into the closing of the novel. In one moment of emphasized tension by means of realization of paralysis in a window, the narrator points out, ???He was standing with her in the cold, looking in through a grated window at a man making bottles in a roaring furnace. It was very cold??? (214). The experience of this seemingly minor eye-witness account of a man working with a roaring furnace from the perspective of somebody freezing in the cold, with nothing but a window to separate the two extremities of experience, reifies the tension between being inside and outside through the opposition of hot and cold.
Once in the final room of the novel, a new set of opposites are introduced and separated by the pane of a window, which relate more to Gabriel??™s desire to leave than do hot and cold. Although he is temporarily happy with Gretta, Gabriel ???crossed the room towards the window. He looked down into the street in order that his emotion might calm a little??? (218). Instead of opposite temperatures on either side of a window, there are opposite emotions. As Gabriel??™s tension and anxiety is high from his desire to rekindle his past love with Gretta, he purposely uses the window, or rather, the contents on the outside of the window, to calm him, to feel the opposite of what he is feeling.
Finally, as the Wellington Monument??™s second appearance in the text includes its snow-capped head gleaming westward, the lure of westward travel again appears via the opposite side of the window in relation to Gabriel: ???A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window [??¦] The time had come for him to set out on his journey westward??? (225). A crucial aspect of this moment, aside from the actualization of the possibility for Gabriel to rid himself of the paralysis he often experiences, is the connection and realization between both sides of the window; Gabriel finally connects his ability to go with what he sees on the outside, rather than pair his paralysis with the outside, resulting in a lack of action, and an inhibited desire.
So how much is paralysis in the window Joyce embeds paralytic features in the different characters, allowing a realization of these features for the reader and eventually Gabriel through the tension of being inside or outside. The conundrum of inside and outside is made apparent by the way the windows work throughout the story, emphasizing what one has or where one is, and just as much emphasizing the opposite. Still, Gabriel??™s possibility for mobility is realized through the final window, which creates a new form of tension all together: Do the windows maintain the paralysis, or show possibilities of movement Instead of dwelling in the dichotomy of window operation, the importance lies in the fact that both operations work independently. As Gabriel??™s interactions with the workings of the windows include both inhibitory and mobility-actualizing experiences, the window works therefore in both ways at separate times, holding him back in the state of paralysis, as well as freeing him from the clutches of his immobility in Dublin. All of this is made possible through the paralysis, in its grasp and through the realization it affords to Gabriel, in the windows.
Joyce, James. Dubliners. New York: Penguin, 1993.
1Controlling Organized CrimeJune 17, 2013 2 When people think about organized crime, the majority of them go straight to the stories seen and heard on television about the mafia. The truth of the matter is organized crime reaches far beyond any mafia and the threat is very real and very dangerous. What follows will explore the issues of organized crime, the legal limitations faced when combating organized crime, and suggestions on ways to take more control over organized crime by evaluating the effectiveness of major federal laws aiding in the combat of organized crimes.Organized Crime Organized crime groups have been around since the beginning. These groups are highly organized and efficient in what they do. Such criminal organizations are responsible for human trafficking and the illegal entry of residents from Mexico. The Mexican border sees violent criminal enterprises with organized crime syndicates smugglings drugs, humans, weapons, and cash, (The Dark Side of Illegal Immigration-Impacts of Illegal Immigration: Crime). Such organizations are the reason there is violence and illegal contraband and drugs available in cities across the nation. Organized crime is widespread criminal activity that occurs within a centrally controlled formal structure, (thefreedicitonary.com). Criminals have a tendency to associate with other criminals. Some criminal??™s desire wealth, others desire power, and still others desire to obtain both. Having these common goals is what makes criminal organizations so successful. They work together in a strict organized fashion to reach a common goal, providing each other with protection and a promise of success.Problems Caused by Organized Crime 3 Racketeering is a form of organized crime. This kind of criminal activity includes bribery, extortion, embezzlement, fraud, counterfeiting, theft, obstruction of justice, and money laundering. When dealing with this kind of organized crime power struggles come into play. Political candidates want votes; criminal organizations will provide those votes in exchange for protection from prosecution. Organizations have the ability to influence government leaders and political players through corruption resulting in the disruption of the proper process. A victimless crime is defined as such that the offenses being committed do not directly cause the injury or death of anyone involved and that all those involved are consenting to the activity. Prostitution, gambling, and drug related crimes are just a few examples of victimless crimes. These criminal activities have high demand and so result in problems of a more personal nature. Things like loss of income, broken marriages/families, disease, or addictions are all examples of the problems these crimes create. Theft or fencing is a popular crime among criminal organizations. Organizations involved with theft dip their hands in retail theft, grand theft auto, fraud, and interstate theft. Organized fencing rings impact the economy because products in high demand are offered at a lower cost but done so illegally and therefore result in currency not processing through the economy. These organizations cause the loss of billions of dollars in profit for legit businesses and a loss of tax revenue for local, state, and federal governments, (fbi.gov). Gangs are the most popular form of organized crime. As defined by the National Institute of Justice, a gang is a group of three or more people who collectively identify themselves with a 4group identity used to create fear and intimidation with the purpose of engaging in criminal activities. Gangs commit crimes like robbery, trafficking of drugs and weapons, extortion, fraud, and prostitution. Gangs keep control of their local community and rival gangs with the use of excessive violence and intimidation. Gang activity causes problems with social and economic institutions primarily within the school, church, or family.Relationships within organized crime There are several theories on the relationships within organized crime. The alien conspiracy theory is the most widely accepted theory. This theory states that organized crime was brought to the United States from other countries through immigrants. The theory continues in that some believe the organized groups existed in other countries and were brought here to further expand the organizations. The theory also explores the idea that immigrants came to the United States without the necessary tools to make a living and as a result turned to crime to provide. The social disorganization theory says criminal activity is likely to occur where social institutions are failing. This theory suggests that it is easier for criminal organizations to move into and a place that suffers from poverty, unemployment, lack of law enforcement presence, and a weakened sense of community. With this, the community would rather not get involved in the business of others but also has a higher demand for products and services offered by criminal organizations. Organizations can also provide a source of income for those who are otherwise reliant on the government to pay their unemployment. 5 The strain theory is the belief that people get involved with organized crime to fill a void. It could be the void of close relationships, lack of income, or a desire to be rich and powerful. These voids would be left unfilled if individuals relied on legal methods to fill them. This theory implies that one will commit an act of violence as a release for pent up frustrations, or that a person will produce and sell illegal contraband because they will make more of a profit than any legal job would offer them. In this theory, organized crime is beneficial to those who seek it out.Legal Limitations Law enforcement and government agencies obtain efficient tools to combat organized crime and have used those tools successfully; organized crime continues to grow and to prosper in society. With society having such a high demand for illicit drugs there is an ongoing market for these organizations to focus on. The high demand for drugs and other contraband is out of the control of agencies combating this crime. Technology definitely hinders the ability to fight organized crime. Although technology does work in the favor of law enforcement, new ways of using technology for crime are happening every moment. By the time agencies catch up and find a solution to the latest technology trend in criminal organizations, the organizations have already found a new way of doing things. Legal limitations placed on law enforcement result in the ability for organized crime to prosper. The federal and state constitutions provide restrictions for law enforcement through laws, rules, regulations, and procedures. Each jurisdiction has its own way of procedure, so if 6cases were to cross jurisdictions and the agency working on the case did not meet the procedure requirements for the new jurisdiction, the entire case could be a loss. Conflicts arise between jurisdictions for this reason, making it difficult to have the cooperation of everyone involved. The conflicts then present technicalities that were missed and again, case dismissed.Solutions to combat organized crime Being that there are differences in procedures and regulations for each jurisdiction then maybe it should be taken into consideration that these regulations change. If federal and state laws were on the same page so that the procedures and regulations were basic enough to be more universal, then when jurisdictions were crossed in a case, the investigation and/or prosecution would not be hindered. Strengthening the cooperation between jurisdictions would help as well, closing many loopholes that result in technicalities. This would allow for agencies to work closer together and on the same level giving them the advantage over organized crime. The United States has created many laws in regards to the investigating, arresting, and prosecuting of criminals. The Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) law was written as part of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. This law allows for anyone who is knowingly and willingly members of domestic or international criminal organizations, or associates of such organizations, engaged in criminal behavior to be investigated, arrested, and prosecuted with a sentence minimum of five years with up to $20,000 in fines and a forfeiture of all assets within their possession. 7 The RICO law is effective in fighting organizations more should be done. Improving relationships with other nations will allow for the sharing of evidence and intelligence on criminal organizations that expand over more than one country. By working together methods, tools, and special trainings can be shared resulting in more thorough investigations and faster prosecutions. Another positive result of working closely with other nations is that when a criminal is detained, charges from all countries involved can be brought to trial at once.Conclusion Criminal organizations hold respect and power from these involved. They use intimidation as a means to keep control and run a very sophisticated business. Society will continue to be threatened by these organizations as well as continue to fund the same organizations through high demand of their products. AS long as there is a market for these services these organizations will continue to prosper. The only thing that can be done now is to find more ways to fight it. 8ReferencesNo Author. (2012). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories. Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.law.jrank.orgFederal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). Gangs; they poison our streets with drugs, violence, and all manner of crime. Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.fbi.govFederal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Organized Retail Theft; a $30 billion a year industry. Retrieved June 14, 2013 from http://www.fbi.govNational Institute of Justice. (2011). what is a gang Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.nij.govOrganized crime. (2003). the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. Retrieved June14, 2013 from http://www.thefreedictionary.comRICO. (n.d.) Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.law.jrank.orgRacketeering. (2008). West??™s Encyclopedia of American Law, 2nd ed. Retrieved June 14, 2013 from http://www.legal-dictionary.thefreeditionary.com
In Bruce Gottlieb??™s article ???How Much Is That Kidney in the Window??? Gottlieb argues that the American people should be allowed to sell their kidney. Jack Kevorkian argues that the way that kidneys are recieved from the deceased and from donors does not provide enough kidneys to keep those who need a kidney alive. Kevorkian believes that the sale of kidneys should be permitted and that the lives lost while waiting for a kidney transplant would be saved. Many argue against legalizing the sale of kidneys because of the danger to the donor but there are other procedures being done legally that are more dangerous to the donor than a kidney transplant is. He compares the effect on life expectancy from donating one kidney to be no more dangerous than driving an extra sixteen miles to work each day. Recipients from the sale of a kidney would benefit not only from the fact that there would be more kidneys available but also from the stand point that a kidney from a cadaver last for eight years compared to a kidney from a live donor last more than twice as long. Transplant surgery and postsurgical treatments are very expensive and Medicare pays the medical bills of patients who need dialysis. The federal government and insurance companies could break even within a two year period by purchasing a kidney just from the savings on patients now on dialysis. The government could create a price floor to keep sellers from bidding down the going price for a kidney and should allow the poor to sell a kidney just like anyone else. Legislation could easily draft a law allowing the sale of a kidney but keep other organs from being sold. I agree that the sale of kidneys should be allowed because the recipients and the seller of a kidney would benefit as well as the insurance companies and the government could save a substantial amount financially.
? ? ? ? In response to Bruce Gottlieb??™s essay on the legalization of selling kidneys, there have been many heated debates over the legalizing the sale of a kidney. I am in full agreement with Bruce Gottlieb over the legalization of selling one??™s own kidney. Not only does the donor gain something from being able to make money off such a transplant, but the receiver in need wins as well for getting the life saving treatment he or she needs. Kevorkian states, ???As of April 30, there were 44,989 people on the waiting list for a kidney transplant. About 2,300 of them will die this year while waiting.???(2) That number could be reduced to almost no deaths if the selling of one??™s own kidney was legal. The fact is that not enough people are dying, or dying quick enough to help the people in need in time. If legalized, that wait would be less than half the original waiting period, perhaps even less than that and would save countless lives. I worked in a hospital for five years and seen how difficult it is for people on dialysis to sit for countless hours, and looking exhausted while going through dialysis. I have talked with the staff in dialysis who told me that many of their patients run out of time while waiting for a kidney or just give up and pass away.
The legalization of selling kidneys would decrease the suffering that these patients go through during dialysis treatments. Gottlieb states, ???This brings us to the most powerful objection to the sale of kidneys that, in practice, it would result in the poor selling parts of their bodies to the rich.??? Regardless of whether or not the poor would be more likely to sell to the rich is not an issue if the case was that they decided to donate for their own personal interest. Selling is also another way for the poor to help themselves financially while living in poverty, and as an added bonus they may feel that they have also saved someone??™s life.?
If selling a kidney could save someone??™s life and not endanger their own life, I believe that this is something that should be legalized. The fact that a kidney donated by a living donor last more than twice as long as one from a deceased person, and that more lives would be saved speaks for itself to legalize the sale of kidneys. The savings to the insurance companies as well as the government to buy a kidney and be able to recoup that dollar amount rather than paying for dialysis for seventeen years or more should make the government more open to the legalizing the sale of kidneys.
Area of Study: Retail-Supermarkets in UKTitle: Investigation into control of the supply chain networks by supermarket chains.AcknowledgmentsMany thanks to Kofi Narh-Saam for your clear guidance and to colleagues in my group for your kind support, all without which this report would not have materialised. To my wife Shamie- thanks for putting up with the long hours of silence during my research and for the enduring isolation from your favourite TV programmes.Contents Item Page NumberExecutive Summary 4Introduction 5
Literature review 5Methodology 6Findings 6Analysis 6-10Conclusion 10References 11-12Abstract or summaryThe focus of the following analysis is to investigate the various means by which superstores control the value chain to gain competitive advantage over rivals. It is an examination of the supply chain network covering manufacturing, warehousing, logistics and distribution functions and based on the big four supermarket chains(Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury??™s, and Morrison??™s).IntroductionThis report is premised on the fact that competition at the till, coupled with changing consumer demands particularly during economic down turn, push supermarkets to adopt cost leadership strategies which involve sourcing products at increasingly low cost in order to offer value to customers at competitive prices. Discount retailers such as Lidl use value pricing strategies to attract brand switching consumers at the expense of supermarket chains. Consequently, the big 5 supermarket chains have repositioned their offering by focusing on cost leadershipSupermarket chains focus on the efficiency of their supply chains to deliver value to the customer at minimum cost often at the expense of manufacturers, farmers and third-party logistics companies. They leverage the scale and scope of their massive distribution capabilities to tilt the balance of power within the supply chain network in their favour. It is therefore paramount that more weight is given to store formats and expansion of stores in this analysis. To limit the scope, the analysis will be confined to mainly the big five supermarkets (Tesco, Sainsbury??™s, ASDA, Morrison??™s) ???who together account for over two-thirds of UK retail food sales??? Fearne (2005, p.570) ObjectivesThis report aims to:
a) Examine the reasons for the supermarkets??™ focus on controlling their supply chains
b) Explore the various strategies employed by supermarkets to enhance their control on their supply chains such as multi format distribution channels, global sourcing, pressure on suppliers, and the use of own labels.
c) Discuss the effects of supermarket control on competitors, suppliers and other supply chain partners
d) Shade light into the future competitive structure in supermarket supply chains in respect of internet retailing.Literature ReviewMichael Porter??™s five forces of competition and the Resource-based view of the firm are applied in this report to explain how both industrial level and firm-specific factors affect the supermarket chains??™ competitiveness. Supermarket chains use their internal resources such as distribution stores as competitive advantage to counter the forces of competition in the industry. The supply chain or value chain networks are discussed as areas where, in the context of the theories, supermarket chains seek competitive advantageCost leadership is a strategy adopted many of the supermarket chains to meet consumer demand for cheap products. It involves competing on price by using economies of scale to source products at low prices.Total logistics concept is applied in the context of movement and warehousing of goods to achieve efficiency and cost reduction by treating the entire process as one rather than fragmented.MethodologyThe following resources were used: books, newspaper articles, journals and websites. While books were used to explain the market structure, they are less significant compared to journals (particularly trade journals) and newspapers in providing up-to -date information.
FindingsSupermarket chains leverage their floor and shelf space to control their supply chains. Supermarkets are under pressure to sell products at cheaper prices and therefore they exercise buying power against the interest of partners in the supply chain.AnalysisPricing strategies and Brand positioning A supermarket??™s pricing strategy relates directly to the way it manages its supply chains. As the global recession hit disposable incomes, consumers are trading down and increasingly demand lower prices. The recession has forced customers to seek value over brand loyalty. In response supermarkets have adopted the discount concept followed by discounter chains like Aldi and Lidl (Euromonitor 2009). Faced with tighter margins as a result of consumer demand for cheaper products and of cut-throat competition at the till, supermarkets have turned to the supply chains to reduce their costs and therefore to fatten their margins. By buying in bulk, supermarkets can squeeze suppliers??™ prices and then sell discounted goods to the consumer. Endless promotions such as buy-one-get-one-free (BOGOF) compliment loyalty cards and other promotional activities designed to drive sales. Discount concept could be counter-productive to the long-term benefit of supermarkets in that it leads to commoditisation of consumer goods and reduce margins to wafer-thin levels.Euromonitor (2009 p.16) point out that ???major grocery retailers are increasingly focusing on private label in order to boost their low-price credentials, with an emphasis on value private label ranges.??? The private label strategy puts supermarkets in competition with manufacturer products and therefore it drives down prices of goods. Supermarkets are also beginning to act like brands giving them the option to segment the market and position some of their brands on premium platform just like the manufacturers. Euromonitor (2009, p.16) highlight the fact that whereas manufacturer ???sub-brands like Flora Pro-Active and Flora No Salt are targeted at distinct customer segments,…retailers can bring out a brand and span it across all categories.??? For example, ???Tescos Organics range is extended across many products ??“ baked beans, fruit and vegetables, bread and so on???- something beyond the means of a manufacturer ( Euromonitor (2009, p.16). According to Mintel (2008), analysis across product categories shows that ???the more local it goes, the more expensive a product becomes regardless of retail channel.??? Supermarkets chains therefore emphasise in their marketing communication on the local sourcing of farm products to enhance customer value perception. However, consumers have objected to the over bearing power supermarkets chains have over farmers when negotiating prices for fresh produce.In the same vein, having the brand associated with ethical organisations or with supply chains endorsed by ethical organisations as environmentally friendly can give supermarkets competitive edge. West (2007) explained that increasing ???consumer sensitivity to corporate social responsibility has resulted in shoppers demanding more information about whats behind the price and that means being able to scrutinise every aspect of production and supply.??? King (2010) as cited by Mortimer and Baker (2010, p. 5) explained that being associated with Fair-trade increased Sainsbury??™s market share of Fair-trade products to the extent that Sainsbury??™s overtook ???Wal-Mart as the worlds biggest retailer of Fair-trade products with one in every four pounds spent on Fair-trade products in the UK spent at Sainsburys.??? Positioning of UK retailersKwiksaveLidlAldiSainsburyTescoAsdaCullensMarks & SpencerHigh
Perceived price level
Perceived quality of store offering
Middle market sector
Premium sectorBased on Mintel dataEconomies of scaleSuperstores give large retailers competitive advantage by allowing them to house multiple brands and categories under one roof, hence providing a one-stop choice for the customer. The retailers leverage their floor and shelf space to pursue a cost leadership strategy by sourcing products from suppliers at lower cost than competitors and then sell them at low prices to drive high revenue. In fact, the strategy depends on the optimisation of the supply chain, which (by definition) implies treating the supply chain as a whole in order to ???synchronise and converge intrafirm and interfirm operational and strategic capabilities??? (Lysons and Farrington 2006, p.95) Furthermore, total logistics cost concept is employed based on the notion that ???decision ??“making concerning the movement and storage of materials should be done as a whole rather in discrete parts??? (Brassington and Pettit 2006, p.556.). The key objective of total logistics is to achieve efficiency and cost reduction in the process of warehousing, transportation and distribution of goods for the mutual benefit of all partners in the value chain.
In reality, as competition increases at the till, supermarkets seek to increasingly exploit the supply chain networks to deliver value to the customers at lower prices than the competition. A tight control of the supply chain not only enables supermarkets to deliver value at cheap prices, it also ensures availability of products at all times. West (2007) points out that Sainsbury??™s lost customers in 2007 because of ???stock-outs.???
In the UK it is now common practice for supermarket chains to vertically integrate their transport, warehousing and logistics functions in the supply chain by getting rid of third party operators in order to improve efficiency and to cut costs. Morrison??™s, for example, runs its own supply chain in order ???to offer fresh food at cheaper prices than would otherwise be possible;??? baking bread in stores and operating its own abattoirs (Bates 2009; cited in Marketing Week 2009, p.30). Ryan (2010), states that Wal-mart intends to pursue a new global sourcing strategy to squeeze out middlemen and save about $12bn in costs.
Reverse logistics, which involves ???removing slow moving, damaged or spoiled goods from stores and shipping them back to suppliers to make room for products that will sell??? is applied across the industry where ???non-perishable non-food items are concerned (Kumar 2008, p.205). New trends in reverse logistics involve returning damaged and out-of-date stock first to a central processing center for sorting, and then to suppliers, a process which has added costs to suppliers while freeing supermarkets shelves of unwanted stock (Kumar 2008, p.205). Technology and innovation
Technology and innovation are fundamental to the overall efficiency of the supply chain as this ensures that shelves are kept stocked at low costs. Wal-Mart which owns ASDA in the UK monitors, in real time, the movement of each of its products through the supply chain anywhere in the world through internet-based networks. In 2003 Wal-Mart ???forced its top 100 suppliers to implement and deploy RFID tagging at the case and pallet level by January of 2005??? in pursuit of its cost-leadership strategy (Woods 2005 as cited by Liu et al. 2008, p.7). The technology enables the supermarket to: ???automate data capture??? (for example, automated discounting to sale perishable food before expiry dates), make ordering decisions, and gain ???product item visibility,??? all of which are critical in the management of perishable food. According to Market Weekly (2007), Tesco has applied Toyota- style lean thinking to its operations to ???cut costs, improve customer service and fatten margins all at the same time.??? West (2007) notes that ???supply chains have become very sophisticated, especially in the chilled products and fresh food areas where retailers are increasingly using just-in-time deliveries.???
Furthermore, with growing consumer interest in ethical and green issues, technology enables ethically-conscious consumers to gain visibility of the value chain so that they can trace products back to their origins which can cement customer loyalty to the brand. Euromonitor (2009, p.23) point out that ???online sales are now so key that almost all store-based retailers have evolved a web-based strategy in parallel with bricks-and-mortar operations.??? Store-based retailers take advantage of ???multi-channel retail, such as collect-in-store options??? (Euromonitor 2009, p.23) to add value to the distribution of on-line products.On the other hand, the power dynamics in the supply chains could be changed by internet shopping. In fact, many suppliers now look to the internet as alternative to supermarket supply chains. According to Euromonitor (2009) the economic down turn gives opportunity to internet retailers to undercut store-based players on price and therefore increase alternative supply chain networks for suppliers and third-party logistics companies. Multiple distribution formatsThe balance of power within supermarket supply chains is a factor of the retail floor and shelf space that the supermarkets have. Fearne et al. (2005, p.507) points out that because ???only a handful of supermarkets control access to consumers means that they are increasingly in a position to exercise buyer power.??? Evidence of retailer excessive power has been highlighted in the press on several occasions. In 1999 Tesco was exposed for ???attempting to pass the costs of an in-store promotion to farmers??? (Fearne et al. 2005, p.507). The suppliers and manufacturers have inherent vulnerability since they have ???no other viable means of setting up distribution channels that offer the same scale and economic benefit??? as alternative to existing supermarket channels (Fearne et al. 2005, p.507).. Suppliers compete fiercely to get supermarket shelf space for their products and in the process suppliers have less bargaining power in negotiating higher prices for their goods with supermarkets. The superstore model (the relocation to larger, out-of-town sites) in the 1980s allowed supermarkets to utilise additional space by extending their offering to include non-food products. According to Mintel (2009), sales of non-foods by grocers have increased ???by 52% since 2003 to reach ?20.4 billion annually.??? Key Note (2008, p. 4.) points out that supermarket are also ???selling services and utilities, capitalising on their trusted brands, and forging partnerships with other companies.???Supermarkets continue to innovate in terms of formats, and ???grocery retailers are attempting to become less reliant on large out-of-town stores in developed markets??? (Euromonitor 2009, p.3). The major supermarket chains are aggressively expanding by acquiring convenience stores (c-store), which include forecourt stores. According to Mintel (2009), a c-store is ???any store which is complementary to a superstore, which is geared to top-up shopping and which gains only a small part of its business from primary shoppers.???
The expansion into c-stores is a strategy by supermarket chains to circumvent planning laws restricting the construction of the preferred large, one-stop and ???out-of-town formats??? by forcing the retailers to prioritise town centres, ???through the so-called sequential test??? (Wood and Browne 2007, p.235). Acquiring smaller stores brings large retailers into competition with ???neighboured retailers??? allowing supermarket chains to leverage their experience, ???complex, efficient supply chains and buying infrastructures??? to outperform smaller players (Wood and Browne 2007, p.235). According to The Grocer (2010, p.44), Tesco Express, dominates the convenience store format in terms of sales, ???number of stores, standards, value and range.??? Tesco convenience store numbers are expanding so rapidly that in 2009 the stores ???increased by 21.7% from 938 t0 1,142 stores??? beating their target of 150 stores a year (The Grocer 2010, p.44).
In future sustaining competitive advantage will be achieved by integrating a retailer??™s offerings in order to optimise service to its consumers. Hough (2010) reported that Tesco plans to develop ???mini-villages??? which include ???a series of smaller mixed homes, shops and leisure developments in Ipswich and the North East.??? The advantages of such a strategy is that Tesco would no longer depend on property developers for expansion and, by creating communities; Tesco would create demand and therefore justify the need for supermarket stores as required by the planning regulation. Furthermore, Tesco could create barriers to entry against competition and therefore further entrench its control of the supply chains. The retailer would have more personal data than the government giving it formidable power to eclipse that of the government (Hough 2010). For the customer, life would revolve around the retailer: it would mean ???buying or renting a home through its estate agent services, securing mortgages through its banking arm and purchasing products on its credit cards through stores??? (Hough 2010)Conclusion and recommendationsThe above analysis highlighted the multiple distribution formats of the major supermarkets as the single most potent competitive advantage upon which supermarket chain rely to control their supply chains. It is equally persuasive to argue that internet retailing offers alternative supply channels for manufacturers and third-party logistics companies to sell and supply directly to the consumer avoiding the supermarket supply chains. In addition to planning and competition laws as well as consumer demand for ethical trading, internet retailing could reduce the dominance of supermarket chains in the supply and distribution of products in the future. This perhaps explains why supermarket chains have entered new markets such as property, finance, and internet retailing to diversify from consumer goods retailing.
ReferencesEuromonitor (July 2009): Global Retailing: New Concepts in Retailing ??“ The thin line between Success and Failure: Euromonitor International. July 2009. London: Euromonitor InternationalEuromonitor (2009) Global Retailing: Expansion Strategies of the Worlds Leading Retailers: Euromonitor International. July 2009. London: Euromonitor InternationalThe Grocer (2010) Convenience power player The Grocer, 22nd May, p.44.
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