Month: December 2016
How People Make Economic Decisions PaperECO/219May 3, 2010How People Make Economic Decisions How people make economic decisions start by using four basic individual decision-making principles. An economy is just a group of people interacting with one another as they go through their lives. The four principles are as follows: people face trade-offs, the cost of something is what you give up to get it, rational people think at the margin, and people respond to incentives.
Principle one where people face trade-offs means making decisions requires trading off one goal against another. An example of this is in society where trade-offs are made between efficiency and equity. Efficiency means that society is getting the maximum benefits from its scare resources. Equity means that those benefits are distributed fairly among society??™s members. In other words, efficiency refers to the size of the economic pie, and equity refers to how the pie is divided. This comes down to making the decisions as to what to give up to get something else in return.
Principle two is the cost of something is what you give up to get it. Making decisions requires comparing the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action. In many cases the decision-makers have to consider both the obvious and implicit costs of their actions. For example, one would have a package of M & Ms and a Snickers candy bar, the M & Ms are seventy-five cents and the Snickers forty-five cents. When one chooses the Snickers it loses the value of gain because you are not gaining a profit.
Principle three is rational people think at the margin. Rational people are people who systematically and purposefully do the best they can do to achieve their objectives. Rational people know that decisions in life are rarely black and white but usually involve shades of gray. A rational decision maker takes an action if and only if the marginal benefit of the action exceeds the marginal cost. This principle can explain why airlines are willing to sell a ticket below cost and why people are willing to pay more for diamonds than for water.
Principle four is how people respond to incentives. Behavior changes when costs or benefits change. Because rational people make decisions by comparing costs to benefits, they respond to incentives. Incentives are crucial to analyzing how the market works. An incentive is something that induces a person to act.
An example of a decision in which you compared the marginal benefits and the marginal costs associated with that decision would be for instance the company I am employed with cut back on employees when the economy took a turn. The company dismissed the employees employed by the temporary company to decrease the costs of running the business. Also the permanent employees were forced to take unpaid furloughs for a week once a month until business turned around. The company I am employed with is a cash only based company. So even though we are still cut back, the benefit is the employees seem to be more productive and work better together. So now that the economy is picking back up there will be slight changes to our office. We will be able to have a receptionist again and permanent employees will not have to continue taking furloughs. I feel that there would not be any incentives that could have led to make a different decision. Overall there was not that much of a down sizing and the decision made employees more grateful to have a position. The principles of economics affect decision-making, interaction and the workings of the economy as a whole by analyzing forces and trends that affect the economy as a whole, including the growth in average income, the fraction of the population that cannot find work, and the rate at which prices are rising.References
Mankiw, N. (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). Thomson South-Western, Mason, OH.
Coping With War
???On occasion the war was like a ping pong ball. You could put a fancy spin on it, you could make it dance??? (O??™Brien).
War could sometimes be a game such as ping pong, but ultimately has ever lasting effects. War is not the only thing soldiers have to deal with. Soldiers also have to deal with coping with what they have seen, done, heard, or been through. ???In a way, I guess, she is right: I should forget. But the thing about remembering is that you don??™t forget??? (O??™Brien). This quote is an example of the difficulties of coping with war and putting it behind you. There are several different ways soldiers deal with this. They use several different methods, whether it is a temporary fix, or a way for them to put events in the back of their minds to try and never remember these events more than they have to. “Its important to have memories of bad things to protect us from future occurrences but sometimes it almost gets overly active so that you end up with post-traumatic stress disorder or shell shock,” Maren says. “If you elaborate these fear memories and it works too well, you can hear a car backfire and have a flashback” (redorbit.com).Most of the time all coping mechanisms are temporary and the horror of the event comes back to the soldier to haunt him once more. They then have to put the memory away once again until the next time it comes back.
According to dictionary.com the definition of coping mechanism is an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control over behavior or gives psychological comfort (dictionary.com). This means that soldiers do whatever they can to block all unpleasant things about the war that really bother them. This can range from a number of different things. If a soldier cannot cope with the killing, losing friends, and other things, they would go A-wall, or crazy. There are so many ways that soldiers learn to cope with different situations, but the some of the most common are drug use, violence, and carrying things with them to help them remember a better time or a peaceful place. Some even get Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. According to nimh.nih.gov PTSD is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. This can be treated over time.
One of the ways soldiers cope with war is violence. Rat Kiley resorted to violence after seeing his Curt Lemon stepped on a booby trapped 105 round. ???We came across a baby VC water buffalo. He stepped back and shot it through the right front knee. The animal did not make a sound. It went down hard, then got up again, and Rat took careful aim and shot off an ear. He shot it in the hindquarters and in the little hump at its back. He shot it twice in the flanks. It wasn??™t to kill; it was to hurt. He put the rifle muzzle up against the mouth and shot the mouth away??? (O??™Brien). The act of violence by Rat was to hurt something to take away the hurt from losing his friend Curt. ???Nobody said much. The whole platoon stood there watching, feeling all kinds of things, but there wasn??™t a great deal of pity for the baby water buffalo. Curt Lemon was dead. Rat Kiley had lost his best friend in the world??? (O??™Brien). According to changing minds.org this was a projection coping mechanism. Rat projected his unwanted feelings on the buffalo to relieve himself temporarily of the loss of Curt. Soldiers resort to violence to make something or someone else feel what they are feeling inside. Kind of like an act of vengeance. Violence helps soldiers, like Rat Kiley, escape the feelings of loss or hurt inside of them.
???Ted Lavender carried 6 or 7 ounces of premium dope, which for him was a necessity??? (O??™Brien). Soldiers such as Ted Lavender carried and abused drugs to get their mind of the war just for that temporary time that the drugs were in affect. When the drugs wore off the reality of war would come back, so Ted would abuse drugs to stay away from reality of war. Starting the drug just to experience it one time would develop into an addiction, because of the way the drug would make the soldier feel. Drugs would make the soldiers feel invincible or just take their minds on a journey of a world away from the war. According to wwmt.com, ???drug abuse is a common coping mechanism for war??? (wwmt.com). This article proves that soldiers use drugs to cope with the events they experience throughout the war. Drug abuse can also lead to death of the soldier using or others around him in his platoon. ???Ted Lavender popped a tranquilizer and went off to pee. Right then Ted was shot in the head on his way back from peeing??? (O??™Brien). Soldiers under the influence of drugs, no matter what the drug, lose focus on what they are doing and often do things that lead to their death. ???They told stories about Ted Lavender??™s supply of tranquilizers, how the poor guy didn??™t feel a thing, how incredibly tranquil he was??? (O??™Brien). When soldiers use drugs to get away from the war they put many people??™s lives at stake.
coporate culture [pic] I. INTRODUCTION The essence of research is the scholarly developing of research outputs, particularly thesis. Through this manual, students are expected to comply with the standards set by the university. With their advisers, students will find valuable pointers on how to write the different parts of their research paper as well as guidelines on the defense process.
II. ENROLMENT OF THE COURSE
1. The student may enroll the subject after passing the pre-requisite subject ______________. Likewise, the student cannot enroll Corporate Research 2 if she/he didn??™t pass/take the Corporate Research 1. 2. A freshmen or sophomore student is not allowed to enroll the subject. 3. The student who enrolled the Corporate Research 1 is the same section as he/she enrolled the Corporate Research 2. 4. The same faculty will handle the Corporate Research 1 and 2.
Note: Corporate Research 1 is Pre-Oral or Proposal Defense covers Chapter 1 to Chapter 3 and Corporate Research 2 is Final Defense and/or continuation that covers Chapter 4 to 5. III. THE PRELIMINARIES
1. Title page
This includes: (1) the title of the research paper; (2) the faculty and institution to which the paper is presented; (3) the degree sought; (4) the full name of candidate(s); (5) the year the research paper is defended.
(See Appendix A)
2. Approval Sheet
This includes: (1) Approval of the members of the Panel for Oral Defense; (2) Acceptance by the Dean; (3) Rating of Oral Defense; and (4) Date of Oral Defense.
(See Appendix B) 3. Abstract
The abstract is a brief summary of the research paper. It should include a brief introduction or rationale of the study, a statement of the problem, a brief description of the method used, research locale, respondents of the study, sampling procedure, instrumentation, data analysis(statistical tools used), findings and conclusions.
(See Appendix C)
It includes the candidate(s) expression of appreciation for the assistance and encouragement given him/her/them in the course of the research.
(See Appendix D)
5. Table of Contents
It precedes all sections in lists. It should list the chapter titles, the main headings and subheadings in the text, and the reference materials. The beginning page number for each section is written along the right-hand margin. The numbering of chapters and the wording, capitalization and punctuation of titles and headings should be exactly the same as they are in the text.
(See Appendix E)
6. List of Table/Figures
Each type of illustrative matter should be listed on a separate page. When there are only two or three tables or figures in a research paper, these are combined in one list.
(See Appendix F) IV. FORMAT OF RESEARCH PAPER
1. Chapter 1 ??“ Introduction 1. Background of the Study
This part should contain a discussion of any of the following: – Presentation of the problem (macro-micro-mini-level) – The existence of an unsatisfactory condition, a felt need/problem that requires a solution – Rationale for conducting the study – Historical background of the problem.
2. Statement of the Problem
The first paragraph includes a statement of the purpose of the study and expressed in a declarative sentence. The next paragraph contains the sub-problems expressed in interrogative sentences.
Future tense is used for proposals while the present tense is used in the final copy of the research paper. 3. Significance of the Study
It begins with an introductory statement and must identify who will benefit from the study.
4. Scope and Limitations
The first paragraph contains the scope which delineates how the study will be narrowed or the boundaries in terms of people involved in the study, instrumentation, time, location or the ???who,??? ???where,??????when,??? and ???how??? of the study.
(See Appendix G)
2. Chapter 2 ??“ Conceptual Framework 1. Review of Related Literature and Studies 1. Local Literature 2. Foreign Literature 3. Local Studies 4. Foreign Studies
Only literature and studies related in purpose or findings to the current study should be included in the review. For related studies, the discussion should be brief critical analysis of the purpose, method of study, principal findings and conclusions. Point out how each of the studies reviewed relates to the problem at hand. The present study should be shown to relate with or evolved from earlier.
Presentation of the literature and studies should be done thematically or according to the variables of the study.
Reviewed literature except those of historical importance must be copyrighted within the last ten years while five years for studies. A minimum of ten (10) literature/studies which are relevant to the present study must be cited.
The place of publication determine whether the literature or studies cited is foreign or local.
2. Research Paradigm
The conceptual framework clarifies the relationship between and among the major variables of the study and may be presented through a paradigm such as the Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model or other illustrative presentation.
If the IPO is utilized, the following must be observed: a) The columns must be equal size. b) Feedback loop must be properly indicated.
3. Research Hypothesis
This is stated in the null form (Ho) with an introductory sentence. Use hypothesis for than one hypothesis.
4. Operational Definition of Variables
It defines important terms or variables used in the study. Terms should be defined conceptually or operationally. Provide an introductory sentence. Terms should be alphabetically arranged. Acronyms and abbreviations should be spelled out. For two or more worded terms, only the first letter of the first word should be capitalized, unless otherwise indicated. Sources of constitutive and technical definitions should be properly acknowledged.
(See Appendix H)
3. Chapter 3 ??“ Methodology 1. Population and Sample
In a table, indicate the population and sample involved in the research study. Discuss the specific sampling technique used and justification on its used.
Describe the construction, validation, and administration of the research instrument/s such as tests, questionnaires, interview guides/schedules, apparatus, devices and laboratory equipment, etc.
The step-by-step procedures followed in conducting the study should be enumerated and explained in complete detail. Identify time frame for the collection of data.
Present procedures chronologically. 4. Statistical Analysis of Data
Describe briefly how the data collected are to be statistically processed. List sequentially and provide the formula for the more sophisticated statistical tool used as well as citing the sources and identifying the sub-problem to which it is used.
(See Appendix I)
4. Chapter 4 ??“ Results and Discussions 1. Presentation 2. Analysis 3. Interpretation
In presenting, analyzing and interpreting the data: 1. Copy and highlight the sub-problem from Chapter 1. 2. Enrich the interpretation by relating findings with the related literature and studies reviewed in Chapter 2. 3. Present only relevant data. Individual scores or row scores should not be presented in the text. 4. The textual presentation should supplement or expand the content in the tables and charts, rather than duplicate them. Do not expect the tables and figures to do the entire communication for you. The analyses of data should be objective and logical. 5. In presenting statistical tests of significance, include information concerning the obtained magnitude or value of the test, the degree of freedom, the probability level, and the direction of the effect. (See Appendix J)
5. Chapter 5 ??“ Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1. Summary 1. Provide an introductory statement. 2. Follow order of presentation of sub-problems. 3. Include textual and numerical data. 4. Only outstanding or salient data are included. 5. No inference nor interpretation is stated.
2. Conclusion 1. Should be equal to the number of sub-problems and must follow order of their presentation 2. Use brief but generalized statements derived from the findings 3. Should not be repetition of statements anywhere in the body. 4. Exclude numerical data. 3. Recommendations 1. Measures or solutions offered should be feasible, practical and attainable. 2. Address to persons, agencies or offices which are in a position to implement them. 3. Identify areas for further research. 4. Should be equal or more than the number of sub-problems. (See Appendix K) V. REFERENCE MATERIALS
It includes books, journals, periodicals, theses, dissertations and online sources
Only sources used in the study be listed in the bibliography, and all materials should be arranged alphabetically within category. (See Appendix L) 2. Appendix
This includes research output which may be printed in non-thesis paper, signed permission to conduct the study, questionnaires or other research instruments used and computations and outputs of computerized analyses.
3. Curriculum Vitae
It includes the following: 1. Personal Information 2. Educational Qualifications 3. Work Experience (See Appendix M)
VI. GROUND RULES ON ORAL DEFENSE
The presentation of the Corporate Research Writing and its oral defense before a panel of examiner constitute the last stage of the candidate??™s work accomplishment for the semester.
The oral defense of the Corporate Research allows the candidate(s) to be examined by panel of examiners in order to test the candidate(s) ability to present the results of his/her/their work as a partial fulfillment of the requirements leading to the granting of a bachelors degree.
6. Oral Defense Procedure 1. The candidate(s) will be given 30-45 minutes to present the research writing. Outline of the presentation should contain: 1. Purpose of the Proposed Research Project; 2. Type of Study; 3. Definition of the Target Population & Sample Size; 4. Sample Design, Technique & Data Collection Method; 5. Specific Research Instrument; 6. Potential Managerial Benefits of the Proposed Study; 7. Proposed Cost Structure; and 8. Profile of the Researchers
2. For the first round each panel member will be given 15-20 minutes to ask questions, or to make comments/observations in order to clarify statements and/or issues that have been raised by the study. The candidate(s) and the panel member can interact with each other during this direct examination. 3. For the second round, any panel member may ask follow through questions, or make comments/observations about the study in order to test the ability of the candidate(s) to defend the research work. At this phase of the examination, suggestions may be presented to improve the research writing, without necessarily pointing to errors in syntax and grammar, but focusing on the overall style of presenting the whole research work in a scholarly form. 4. The adviser will summarize the preceding, citing, if any observations and/or suggestions for the final improvement of the research paper. 5. The panel will decide to accept or not to accept the paper. The panel??™s decision is final and unappealable. In case of a conditional acceptance, the candidate(s) will be given two (2) weeks to prepare for another oral defense of corrections. VII. GRADING SYSTEM
7. The grading system is patterned with the University Grading System:
1.00 – 1.99 : Excellent 2.0 – 2.99 : Highly Satisfactory 3.0 – 3.5 : Satisfactory 3.6 – 4.0 : Repeat or Re-defense 4.1 – 5.0 : Failed (See Appendix N for Evaluation Form 1- Pre-Oral Defense) (see Appendix O for Evaluation Form 2 ??“ Final Defense)VIII. REFERENCES
American Psychological Association (2010) Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washing, DC: Author.
APA Website: www.apastyle.org.
Campbell, W.G., Ballou, S.V., Slade C. (1990). Form and Style: Theses, Reports, Term Papers (8th ed.). Boston, Houghton Mifflin.
Mendoza, Eric C., (2011), Manual for Thesis and Dissertation Writing: Manila: Eulogio ???Amang??? Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology.
IX. APPENDICESRepublic of the PhilippinesJOSE RIZAL UNIVERSITYShaw Boulevard, Mandaluyong CityEFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARBONATED BEVERAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND ITS SERVICE TO CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: BASIS FOR MARKET SUSTAINABILITY A Research StudyPresented toThe Faculty of the College of Professional StudiesIn Partial Fulfillment of theRequirements for the Degree ofBachelor of Science in Business AdministrationByKEVIN B. APEJORIEL S. DELGADOMARK JOSEPH P. MANALORAYMOND G. PASCUALJOHN NIC L. SANTOS2012CERTIFICATION This research study entitled ???EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARBONATED BEVERAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND ITS SERVICE TO CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: BASIS FOR MARKET SUSTAINABILITY??? prepared and submitted by KEVIN B. APE, JORIEL S. DELGADO,MARK JOSEPH P. MANALO, RAYMOND G. PASCUAL, and JOHN NIC L. SANTOS in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Marketing has been examined and recommended for ORAL DEFENSE. WILLY O. GAPASIN, DBA Adviser_____________________________________________________APPROVAL SHEET Approved by the Panel for Oral Defense on _____________ with a rating of __________.LEODEGARIO DAVID, DBAChairmanMAYBELLE GALLARDO, DBA LEMUEL MAGRACIA, DBA Member Member Accepted in partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Marketing. LEODEGARIO DAVID, DBA Dean, College of Professional StudiesABSTRACTTitle: EFFECTIVENESS OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARBONATED BEVERAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND ITS SERVICE TO CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: BASIS FOR MARKET SUSTAINABILITYResearchers: KEVIN B. APE JORIEL S. DELGADO MARK JOSEPH P. MANALO RAYMOND G. PASCUAL JOHN NIC L. SANTOSDegree: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MAJOR IN MARKETINGYear: 2012Adviser: WILLY O. GAPASIN, DBA 1. The rationale of the study 2. The statement 3. The research method used, research locale, respondents of the study, sampling procedure, instrumentation, and data analysis (statistical tools used). 4. Summary of findings and conclusions
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The researchers would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to the following good-hearted people, who in one way or another, helped in the completion of this research undertaking: Dr. Willy O. Gapasin, their adviser, for ??¦.. K.B.A J.S.D. M.J.P.M. R.G.P. J.N.L.S.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PageLIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiLIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ixCHAPTER 1. Introduction Background of the Study . . . . . . . . . . ??¦. . . . . . 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . ??¦.. . . . . 5 Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦.. . . 7 Scope and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦… 9CHAPTER 2. Conceptual Framework Review of Related Literature and Studies . . . ??¦.. 11 Local Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦??¦. 11 Foreign Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ??¦??¦. 23 Local Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ??¦??¦. 31 Foreign Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦??¦.. 42 Research Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦??¦.. 50 Operational Definition of Variables . . . . . . . ??¦??¦.. 53CHAPTER 3. Methodology Page Population and Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Statistical Analysis of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67CHAPTER 4. Results and Discussions Sub-Problem No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70CHAPTER 5. Summary, Conclusions and Recommendation Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦. .100 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦. 110 Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??¦ 120BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 131APPENDIX A. Letter of Permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 B. Survey Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152CURRICULUM VITAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160LIST OF TABLESTable Page 1 Profile of Respondents in terms of Age, Length of Service, Sex and Civil Status . . . . . . . 43 2 Marketing Strategy on Pricing Adopted by Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48CHAPTER 1IntroductionBackground of the StudyStatement of the Problem The study aims to assess the effectiveness of marketing strategy of Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines and its service to customer satisfaction as bases for market sustainability. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the overall demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: 1. Gender 2. Age 3. Civil Status 4. Job Position /Length of Service 2. What are the marketing strategies of Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines in terms of: 1. Product; 2. Price; 3. Promotion; and 4. Place of distribution 3. How effective are the marketing strategies employed by Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines, with respect to: 1. Product; 2. Price; 3. Promotion; and 4. Place of Distribution 4. Is there a significant difference in the marketing strategy employed by Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines as perceived by the sales personnel and the dealers 5. Based on the findings of this study, what do researchers may recommend to improve the marketing strategy and its service to customer satisfaction; basis for market sustainability of the Carbonated Beverage in the PhilippinesSignificance of the Study The result of the study will provide useful data and information to the following: Carbonated Beverage Company. It gives them data and inputs to improve and sustain their marketing strategy to be locally competitive in the market. Students. It provides additional information to enhance their level of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of marketing strategies.Scope and Limitations The study concentrated primarily on marketing mix such as product, price, promotion and place of distribution. The geographical coverage is Manila only whether their manufacturing operation are located outside Metro Manila.CHAPTER 2Conceptual FrameworkReview of Related Literature and Studies Local Literature Foreign Literature Local Studies Foreign StudiesResearch ParadigmINPUTS PROCESS OUTPUT FeedbackFigure 1 – Research ParadigmResearch Hypothesis The researcher was guided by the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the marketing strategy employed by Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines.Operational Definition of Variables The following terms are defined operationally and lexically to provide a common frame of reference: Cola. This refers to a carbonated soft drink products such as Coca cola, Pepsi Cola, Rc Cola and Virgin Cola. Marketing. This refers to any tasks necessary to identify the type and amount of goods and services desired by society, and the pricing, and distribution and promotion of those goods and services.CHAPTER 3MethodologyPopulation and SampleTable 1Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Gender|Group /Gender |Sales Personnel |Dealer | |
| | | |TOTAL |
| |N |% |
|Offer many types of soft drinks. |4.60 |Very Much Adopted |
|Per bottle |4.43 |Adopted |
|Per case. |1.87 |Least Adopted |
|Offer special feature that attracts competitors. |2.47 |Moderately Adopted |
|Composite Weighted Mean |3.34 |Moderately Adopted |
As shown in the table, the ??¦..Table 3Marketing Strategy on Price Adopted by Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines|Strategies on Price |Weighted |Verbal |
| |Mean |Interpretation |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
|Composite Weighted Mean | | | CHAPTER 5 Summary, Conclusion and RecommendationSummary The salient findings of the study are as follows: 1. On the Marketing Strategies of Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines as to: 1. As to Product. The marketing strategies employed by Beverage Company such as offer many types of soft drinks, per bottle, per case, and offer special features that attract competitors rated by the respondents as moderately adopted with an overall mean result of 3.34. 2. As to Pricing.Conclusion Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. Among the four P??™s of marketing strategies adopted by the Carbonated Beverage Company in the Philippines it appears that the respondents considered the marketing mix applied is moderately adoptable.Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the following recommendations are suggested: 1. Offer special features to attract more customers, further product research development should be explored in order to improve the product features.BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books
Cihen, William T.: The Marketing Plan Fourth Edition. New York:
McGraw-Hill 2005. B. Journals/Periodicals
Bill Pecoriello. ???Virgin Cola Reaches the U.S. Market. Beverage3
World International May/June 2002.
C. Thesis / DissertationsCabreros, Gerardo T. (2006). Export Marketing Strategy of
Philippines Agri-Based Food Product as an Analysis (Dissertation). EARIST, Manila
D. Online SourcesHerbst-Damm, K.L. & Kulik, J.A. (2005). Marketing Plan, Business
Strategy, 38-48. Retrieved from hhtp://business.edu./index/ejap.CURRICULUM VITAEPERSONAL INFORMATION Name : KEVIN B. APE
Address : 1116 Int. 3 Wagas St. Sta. Mesa, Manila
Birthdate : March 13, 1990
Age : 21 years old
Birthplace : Naguilan, La Union
Civil Status : SingleEDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Graduate School : Jose Rizal University
Bachelor of Science in BusinessAdministration
Major in Marketing
PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES ??? Service Crew : Jollibee ??“ Recto Branch
January 2008-December 2008 ____________________
JOSE RIZAL UNIVERSITY
Management DepartmentCorporate Research 1
EVAUATION OF PROPOSAL ORAL DEFENSEResearch Title: ___________________________
___________________________Name of the Candidate/s: ___________________________
Date of Defense: ___________________________| | |Highly | | | |
|ITEMS |Excellent |Satisfactory |Satisfactory |Repeat |Failed 5 |
| |1 |2 |3 |4 | |
|Conduct of Presentation | | | | | |
| B. Mastery of the | | | | | |
|Study | | | | | |
|Research Knowledge and | | | | | |
|Capabilities | | | | | |
|Clarity in Responding to | | | | | |
|Questions | | | | | |ORAL DEFENSE RATING: _____________________
Signature of the Rater over Printed Name
JOSE RIZAL UNIVERSITY
Management DepartmentCorporate Research 2
EVAUATION OF PROPOSED
CORPORATE RESEARCH WRITINGResearch Title: ___________________________
___________________________Name of the Candidate/s: ___________________________
Date of Defense: ___________________________
Date of Final Revision: ___________________________
| | |Highly | | | |
|ITEMS |Excellent |Satisfactory |Satisfactory |Repeat |Failed 5 |
| |1 |2 |3 |4 | |
|CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION | | | | | |
|Background of Study | | | | | |
|Statement of the Problem | | | | | |
|Significance of the Study | | | | | |
|Scope & Limitations | | | | | |
|CHAPTER ??“ CONCEPTUAL | | | | | |
|FRAMEWORK | | | | | |
|A. Review of Related Literature & | | | | | |
|Studies | | | | | |
|Research Paradigm | | | | | |
|C.Operational Definition of | | | | | |
|Variables | | | | | |
| | | | | | |
|CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY | | | | | |
|Population and Sample | | | | | |
|Instruments | | | | | |
|Procedure | | | | | |
|D.Statistical Analysis of | | | | | |
|Data | | | | | |
|CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND | | | | | |
|DISCUSSIONS | | | | | |
|Presentation | | | | | |
|Analysis | | | | | |
|Interpretation | | | | | |
|CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, | | | | | |
|CONCLUSION AND | | | | | |
|RECOMMENDATION | | | | | |
|Summary | | | | | |
|Conclusion | | | | | |
|Recommendations | | | | | |RATING ON WRITTEN: _____________________
RATING ON ORAL : _____________________
TOTAL RATING : _____________________
Signature of the Rater over Printed Name __________________________________
Signature of the Adviser over Printed Name __________________________________
Signature of the Chairperson over Printed Name
[pic]Prepared by: WILLY O. GAPASIN, DBAAPPENDIX A: TITLE PAGE FORMATAPPENDIX B: CERTIFICATION AND APPROVAL SHEETAPPENDIX C: FORMAT FOR ABSTRACTAPPENDIX D: FORMAT FOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTSAPPENDIX E: FORMAT FOR TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTSACKNOWLEDGMENTSAPPENDIX F: FORMAT FOR LIST OF TABLESAPPENDIX G: FORMAT FOR CHAPTER 1APPENDIX H: FORMAT FOR CHAPTER 2Effectiveness of Marketing Strategiesa. Gathering of Data using Documentary Analysis of Survey Questionnaire and Observation and Interview.Respondent??™s profile: ??? Age ??? Gender ??? Length of ServiceAPPENDIX I: FORMAT FOR CHAPTER 3APPENDIX J: FORMAT FOR CHAPTER 4APPENDIX K: FORMAT FOR CHAPTER 5APPENDIX L: FORMAT FOR BIBILIOGRAPHYAPPENDIX M: FORMAT FOR CURRICULUM VITAE FORM-1PHOTOAPPENDIX N: FORMAT FOR EVALUATION FORM-1APPENDIX O: FORMAT FOR EVALUATION FORM-2
How People Make Economics Decisions
University of Phoenix
Principles of Economics
ECO/212How People Make Economic Decisions
According to Mankiw, the four most important principles of individual decision-making are: ???People Respond to Incentives, The Cost of Something Is What You Give Up to Get It, Rational People Think at the Margin, and People Face Trade-offs:???
? ? ? People face trade-offs by having to give up something to get what they want or need. ? This is no surprise for most people who learn early in life that few things are free. As an example of a trade-off, many times students from college give up spending time with their families in order to complete their homework and accomplish their goals of earning a Bachelor or Masters Degree. ? Because of the ???trade-offs, making decisions require comparing the costs and benefits of alternative courses of action??? (Mankiw).
? ? ? Next, rational people think ahead of time and on the spot. A rational decision maker ???takes an action if and only if the marginal benefit of the action exceeds the marginal cost??? (Mankiw). ? An example of a decision comparing the marginal benefit and the marginal cost associated with that decision occurred when I decided to pay ahead of time a nice and descent condo in Puerto Penasco, Mexico, so my family and me could go on vacation. I had to choices and one of them was to get it ahead of time or to pay when we went on our vacation. ? The marginal benefits of the cost of the condo were different in the way that the cost was a big difference. ? Therefore, I based my decision on these personal incentives and started to save money even though my trip was going to be in a couple of months.
? ? ? Of course, if the condo fee had been significantly higher than traveling by air, I would have more vacation time at work and more time with my family. I would have chosen to travel by air to reduce the cost of my trip especially on gas.? ? ? Finally, the principles of economics is affect by interaction, the workings of the economy and decision-making, as a whole because all people make decisions based on what they want and what is best for them personally. Reference
??? “Principles of Economics”; N. Gregory Mankiw; 2003
??? Slembecks Principles of Economics
This report will explain how the metal element copper is separated and refined from its ore and also discuss technological advances in chemistry, as well as the economical efficiency and consequences of the production of copper.
Copper is found naturally in rocks in the crust of the Earth. The crust contains rocks, which are mixtures of solidified mineral crystals and grains. In these minerals are materials with specific chemical compositions and unique physical properties. If a rock has enough of a metal in it to be economically viable to extract then it is called an ore. Here is a table containing the main copper ores:
Mineral name | Formula | Appearance |
Cupritecopper oxide | Cu2O | Red, earthy |
ChalcociteCopper(I)sulphide | Cu2S | Dark grey, metallic |
BorniteCopper iron sulphide | Cu5FeS4 | Golden brown, metallic |
MalachiteCopper carbonate hydroxide | CuCO3Cu(OH)4 | Bright green, earthy |
AzuriteCopper carbonate hydroxide | 2CuCO3Cu(OH)4 | Blue, glassy |
ChalcopyriteCopper iron sulphide | CuFeS2 | Golden yellow, metallic |
As you can see, all of the ores contain the element copper (Cu) and these atoms are bonded with other elements and/or compounds such as oxygen (O), sulphur (S), Iron (Fe), carbonate (CO3) and hydroxide (OH) to form a crystalline solid. These compounds containing copper are found in ores which also contain impurities like sand (SiO2) and other useless rocks such as halite (NaCl).
In Queenstown, Tasmania, a mine in Mount Lyell extracts copper. The main form of copper found at this mine is chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). This tetragonal crystal is made of copper (I), iron (II) and sulphur.
Below is a list of the properties of chalcopyrite and the elements in it.
Properties of chalcopyrite:
Lustre: | Metallic |
Transparency: | Opaque |
Colour: | Brass yellow, often with an shining tarnish. |
Streak colour: | Greenish black |
Tenacity: | Brittle |
shape: | Irregular/Uneven |
Density | 4.1 – 4.3 g/cm3 |
Structure: | Tetragonal crystal system |
Additional properties: | Tend to cling to bubbles in water due to hydrophobia |Elements in chalcopyrite:
* Lustrous (shiny)
* High density
* High tensile strength
* High melting and boiling points
* Good conductors of heat and electricity
* Electron configuration in chalcopyrite has one electron in the outer shell so it has 1+ chargeSulphur
* Dull yellow colour
* Low density
* Low melting and boiling point
* Bad conductor of electricity
* Electron configuration of 2,8,6 so has a 2- charge
* Low densityIron
* Lustrous (shiny)
* High density
* High tensile strength
* High melting and boiling points
* Good conductors of heat and electricity
* Electron configuration has two electrons in the outer shell in chalcopyrite. Has a 2+ charge
Separation processCrushing and grinding
Firstly the rock in the mine must be broken. A churn drill is the first step in this process which bores down into the rock with a hard steel bit. The churn drill holes are loaded with explosives which blow the rock into pieces. The ore is then transported to the crushing plant. In here, the rocks are crushed into particles of less than 10mm in diameter. This assists in the separating of the copper minerals as they are found as fine grains in the ore. After being passed through the several crushing plants, the copper ore emerges as a fine powder.Concentration
Now that we have obtained a fine powder of chalcopyrite and other useless rock material, it is time to separate the useful compound from the gangue or waste rock. This is done using a method called froth flotation. This is a method used to separate sulphide minerals from gangue due to sulphides hydrophobic properties. Copper iron sulphide is hydrophobic as both its sides are positive since they are copper and iron. Since water has a positive side and a negative side (hydrogen??™s are on one side and oxygen on other) the chalcopyrite repels the water.
Non-polar molecule Polar molecule
+ + –
+ + –
+ + –
+ – + +Positive charges repel each other, making chalcopyrite hydrophobic.(Number of positive/negative
charges aren??™t to scale)
This means that minerals with positive charges around them like sulphide are repelled from water, and since the air bubbles do not have any water in them they attach to them. The frothing agent used may also contain oils as the hydrophobic sulphide minerals are also attracted to them. Since oils and air (mainly nitrogen and oxygen) are less dense than water, the bubbles and sulphur minerals floats.
After the copper mineral has floated to the top of the mixture, it is skimmed off and gets dried which removes the water and frothing chemicals. Now we have obtained copper concentrate. This means that the copper mineral is concentrated (about 20%) as we have removed the gangue and unwanted rock.
The gangue which settles at the bottom of the cell is taken out of the cell from an outlet tap. These waste rocks are then used to refill used mines or stored in a tailings damn. The water used in this process is re-used as much as possible to increase economical efficiency and reduce water consumption.Extraction
Subsequently, the copper is extracted from the compound it is found in. This is the compound we have just concentrated: CuFeS2 (Chalcopyrite). This is done by the process of smelting. Smelting is a chemical process used to isolate an? element? from its ore using? heat? and a reduction agent. In the smelting of copper iron sulphide, sand (SiO2) is used as a reduction agent and coal is added for heat. These are all mixed in a furnace and heated to very high temperatures with the presence of oxygen. This separates the iron from the chalcopyrite. In the smelter, iron oxide formed from the combustion of copper iron sulphide reacts with the silicon dioxide. This leaves only three products in the smelter: copper (I) sulphide, iron silicon trioxide and sulphur dioxide (escapes from the top as a gas).
Below are the chemicals equations for this process.
2CuFeS2(s) + 4O2(g) Cu2S(l) + 2FeO(s) + 3SO2(g)
Copper iron sulphide + oxygen copper sulphide + iron oxide + sulphur dioxide
FeO + SiO2 FeSiO3
Iron oxide + silicon dioxide iron silicon trioxide
As we can see, the copper(I) ion forms an ionic bond with the sulphur to make Cu2S . This is because copper(I) has a charge of +1 since it has one electron in its outer shell. Although the sulphur has six electrons in its outer shell so it needs two more electrons to have a full, stable outer shell. It achieves this by bonding with two copper(I) ions. The iron (II) ions have two electrons in their outer shell so they have a 2+ charge as they must get rid of two electrons to become stable. Since the oxygen has an electron configuration of 2, 6 it needs two more electrons to be stable. It takes the two electrons from the iron and they bond ionically due to the electrostatic forces of attraction between opposite ions. Another sulphur atom from the chalcopyrite reacts with oxygen making a covalent bond which forms 3SO2. This is done as the oxygen and sulphur both share two electrons (since both need two more electrons) giving them a stable outer shell.
The iron oxide compound produced reacts with silicon dioxide to make iron silicon trioxide. Oxygen has 6 electrons in its outer shell and silicon has 4. They bond covalently like this:
This leaves this anion with a -2 charge. However iron (II) has a 2+ charge so it ionically bonds with them (due to electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions) to form iron silicon trioxide.
The copper sulphide formed is then taken to the converter furnace where it is heated with oxygen to extract copper from copper sulphide. Sand is added in the converter to remove any leftover iron oxide.
Cu2S(s) + O2(g) 2Cu(l) + SO2(g)
Copper(I) sulphide + oxygen copper + sulphur dioxide
FeO(s) + SiO2(s) FeSiO3
Iron oxide + silicon dioxide iron silicon trioxide
Overall the reaction is:
2CuFeS2(s) + 5O2(g) 2Cu(l) + 2FeO(s) + 4SO2(g)
When copper(I) sulphide reacts with oxygen, sulphur and oxygen both share one electron with each other and the oxygen atoms share one electron with each other to form a stable covalent compound of sulphur dioxide. The copper atoms left form a metallic bond with each other which consists of many positive nucleuses of copper atoms with a delocalised sea of electrons surrounding them, which are free to move around.
The molten slag (FeSiO3, gangue, fluxes and some copper) falls on top of the molten copper (since it is less dense than copper). This slag is then tapped off the top and undergoes the process of grinding and froth flotation again to extract more copper.
Sulphur dioxide gas escapes the top of the smelter and is used to make sulphuric acid. This is done by reacting it with oxygen to obtain sulphur trioxide then it is dissolved in water to make sulphuric acid.
2SO2(g) +O2(g) 2SO3(g)
SO3(g) + H2O(l) H2SO4(aq)
In this reaction, the covalent compound sulphur trioxide is covalently bonded by sharing two electrons with one oxygen atom and one oxygen atom sharing two electrons with the sulphur atom. The sulphur atom then shares two of its remaining for electrons with each oxygen atom.
Sulphur trioxide then reacts with oxygen ions in water to form sulphate ion with a -2 charge as sulphur tetraoxide has two more electrons than protons. This anion is attracted to the two hydrogen atoms which have a charge of 1+ each due to the electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. They then form an ionic bond of H2SO4.
As copper is denser than the slag it sinks to the bottom of the mixture in the furnace, from where it is tapped off. The separation process gives copper which is 98% pure although other impurities such as sulphur, gold and silver are left in the copper. This copper is called blister copper as bubbles of SO2 escaping from the copper look like blisters.
However even though we have separated the copper, we must purify it to make it suitable for uses such as electrical wiring. This is done by electrolysis. The impure copper (from separation) is used as the anode, and the cathode is made of a steel slab covered in pure copper. Numerous anodes and cathodes are placed alternatively in a tank which contains an electrolyte. When electricity is run through this electrolyte, the impure copper metal becomes copper ions, which are attracted to the negative cathode. As they deposit, pure copper builds on the cathode while impurities such as silver and gold fall to the bottom.
Impact of technological advances on the understanding of chemistry
Through the many thousands of years man has always been discovering new metals, new ways to extract them and new uses for them. The discovery of these metals has greatly influenced our understanding of chemistry.
The first type of material used by man was simply stones. These would serve for purposes such as weapons and tools. This era in time was called the ???stone age???. This simply taught man that different objects have different properties for example stone is harder than wood.
Many years later man began finding metal nuggets on the ground. These metals were copper, gold and silver due to their un-reactive properties. These metals were simply hammered into shape to serve whatever purpose they needed to. Man learnt that metals could be hammered into shape.
Around 6000 B.C copper was extracted by its ore which lead to the copper age. Copper ore and charcoal heated together produced a high-carbon, low-oxygen atmosphere which smelted the ore. This taught man that you could extract a metal from its ore by smelting it (heating with carbon). Copper was less brittle than stone and was malleable. It could also be hammered to be made harder. This served as a material for weapons such as swords and tools such as pots.
3000 years later, copper and tin had been alloyed together introducing the Bronze Age. Bronze was harder and had a lower melting point so it was a lot more useful than copper which allowed it to be shaped easier. Through the mixing of these two metals, man had learnt how the properties of a material change by adding different chemicals. When two different elements are added together, they become harder as the atoms cannot slide over each other. Furthermore alloying metals disrupts their sea of electrons which holds them together, this then lowers their melting points.
The discovery of more metals such as lead and zinc, helped broaden our knowledge on metals as we learnt about their individual properties and what they could be used for. Since lead was un-reactive in was used in plumbing and zinc was used by alloying with copper to make brass, a mixture harder than copper. By discovering more metals, man learnt about the properties of metals and that every metal has unique properties which are useful for different purposes.
New techniques to extract metals were used which lead to the discovery of more metal elements. Iron was discovered by using a furnace with charcoal and an oxygen supply which allowed higher temperatures to be reached. Once again, man discovered another element with unique properties. Steel was also discovered by heating iron with carbon and quenching it with water. Steel was a lot harder than iron and less brittle. These technological advancements showed man that to extract different metals, different temperatures are required. Additionally man learnt that the method in which an alloy is made affects its properties.
Although man discovered many new metals and made use of them, some issues had been raised. Firstly, extraction of metals creates a lot of pollution as carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are released during smelting and by machinery used in the extraction process. This has damaged our environment. Some of the Earth??™s resources have been nearly depleted due to our extensive use of metals. This increases prices and may result in a deficiency of metals for future generations. Since metals are less concentrated in the Earth, this makes it harder to extract metal, which means more money and time is required. Lastly lots of money and time has been put into the advancement of our understanding in chemistry. This could have been put in other areas such as medicines which may have lead to more advantages for society.
All the technological advancements such as the discovery of smelting have allowed us to obtain an extensive knowledge on metals and their purposes. Without this vital knowledge, humanity would never have developed to the stage it is at now. Even though metals may have costed a lot of money and depleted the Earth??™s resources, they definitely contribute to a huge role in the evolution of humanity.
Difficulty and cost of extraction
Since copper is not very reactive, it is less energy consuming to extract it from its ore as the energy required to break weak bonds between atoms is less than stronger bonds. This means copper can be extracted at relatively low temperatures so copper is easy and cheap to extract.
Abundance of ores and the concentration of metals in the ores
Copper is a very scarce element, only making up 0.07% of the crust. Unfortunately Mt Lyell has one of the lowest percentages of copper in its crust ??“ only about 0.4%. This means that a lot of energy and therefore money must be put in to extract the copper as a lot of the ore is gone to waste. This increases prices of copper.
Location of ores and cost of transport
In Mt Lyell, the mine is very close to the extraction plant which lowers costs of transport as less fuel is required. However the fact that Tasmania is an island means that it must export its ores to other countries. The price of this shipping greatly reduces economical efficiency. Additionally there is a delay in time for the copper to arrive to other countries.
The recycling of copper greatly reduces the energy used. Only 6% of the energy required to obtain copper form its ore is needed to recycle it. Since copper is relatively un-reactive, the recycling process is also made a lot easier and it doesn??™t corrode which means more of the copper can be extracted from recycling. Currently not much copper is recycled, although as people are beginning to realise the advantages of recycling, more recycling plants are being made.
Overall the process of extraction of copper from Mt Lyell is not efficient as the ore is very scarce at that location, the costs of exporting ores is very high and not much copper ore is being currently recycled. However cheaper and easier techniques such as bioleaching and phytomining are beginning to be used which are more efficient. New fuels may be used in the future which will reduce costs of transport. New areas rich in copper may also be utilised and recycling is currently increasing, making the best of the Earth??™s resources.
Consequences of copper mining on the environment
The mining of copper used to leave huge scars on the face of the Earth. Huge piles of waste rock were also dumped near the quarry. These scars and wastes were eyesore and ruined the areas view. Waste rocks dumped next to rivers and lakes also used to intoxicate the water as heavy metals leached into it. Now mines are filled up with any waste rock after they are used and vegetation is replanted to encourage wildlife.
Sulphur dioxide released severely damages the environment as it reacts with water in rain to form acid rain. This kills plants and ruins the soils PH levels leaving the affected area barren. Acid rain also damages buildings made of limestone as it corrodes it. If the sulphur dioxide dissolves in rivers, fish and aquatic life may be killed. Sulphur dioxide emissions are reduced by passing SO2 through scrubbers which dissolve the sulphur dioxide in water. This then produces sulphuric acid, stoping SO from escaping into the atmosphere.
Huge amounts of water are used in the extraction of copper during operations such as froth flotation and washing. Water may also get contaminated which kills wildlife and poisons water. To reduce these consequences, as much water as possible is recycled and water which is contaminated is kept in retention ponds.
How People Should Live Their Lives
???The Giver??? is written by Lois Lowry. The book is about a perfect community where people do not know what is hunger or war. People in this book live in peace and harmony, but without love or freedom. These people should follow many rules. Also, the population of the community is regulating. However, in the real world there are few places where population is regulating. And there is the question- If we want to live in peace do we have to control the population in the world Population should not be regulated, but people should think very carefully how they are going raise their kids before making them, because every person in the world should be and is born for joy not for sorrow.
In the book a family can have only 2 kids. But how the community stops people from having more than 2 kids The community controls everything by having many rules. One of them is that a family cannot make their own kids. A family can have kids only if the members of the family apply for them and get approved ???The year we got Lily, we knew of course, that we??™d receive our female, because we??™d mad our application and been approved.???(12) All this means that people are afraid of the government or they don??™t know how they can live their own life and having their own kids without asking any permission. All this is very sad and brutal from the community if the know the other kind of life. People should not allow other people to tell them of a family can or cannot have their own children because it is inhuman.
Another kind of control is that the community in the book allows families to have only 1 boy and 1 girl for kids. However, to make the rule works the families not only cannot make their own kids, but their kids are made from special Birthmothers. It is not only bad for the families and the connection between their kids but also the effects the birth mothers because they ???the Birthmothers never even get to see new children??? (22). Birth mothers in the community give to birth 3 kids and they cannot see the kids after the birth. This could make them mentally to collapse. These kinds of rules should not be allowed because they could wreak havoc the people.
In the real world there are some places where the population of the people is trying to be controlled. One country is China. The population in China is very big and many people live poor and very sad life. The Chinese government allows family to have only one child. In the past, the most popular birth control is sterilization and abortion. Even though that Chinese rules are strict China never used other women for Birthmothers like the community in the book did. Perhaps, if the Chinese government tries the same rules there will be rebellion against the government. People there know what kind of joy the birth of a child could bring in the family and many people will be not agreeing to obey rule that is saying that somebody else should give birth to your child.
The population of the different communities should not be regulated or controlled the way that the government in the book is doing because is inhumanity. People should not live this kind of life when there is no visible reason of doing it. In these days families around the world have the rights to make their own kids and people should see that and how happy can be without looking some crazy music or movie stars that don??™t want to have birth because they don??™t want to change their bodies. People can enjoy the life without thinking if they are going to have chance to make their own child because they have this opportunity.
One of the most important metals, copper has an atomic number of 29 and symbol ???Cu???. Although it??™s discoverer is unknown, it is known that its date of discovery goes back to the ancient times. Israel, Egypt and Jordan were some of the earliest locations of copper smelting sites, dating back to about 4500 B.C. It??™s earliest estimates are around 9000 B.C. in the Middle East. In India, artisans created copper alloy products such as icons and lamps.
Copper is usually created in volcanic areas. Although copper is found worldwide, over 90 percent of it is located in four different areas. They are the Great Basin of the western United States, Zambia, central Canada, Peru, and Chile. Antarctica also has deposits of copper in lots of places, but a temporary ban on mining was established in 1991 to last for 50 years to preserve the land. The most familiar forms of copper are pure copper, brasses and bronze. Found in nature, mostly in ???impure mineral??? form, copper can be produced by smelting, leaching, or by a biochemical process that uses ???thiobacillus ferrooxidans???.
One historical use for copper was the copper tubing in Ancient Egypt. It looked like it was constructed like the plumbing pipes we use today. It was found in the tombs and temples of rulers. A lot of this tubing remains in great condition more than five thousand years after its first use, which is an amazing fact. This is because the copper is not as susceptible to corrosion like other metals are, which is why it is still used today for pipes. Unlike plastic, copper does not give off fumes or burn. It also has antibacterial properties that can fend off microorganisms like the ones that cause Legionnaires disease.
Copper has a metallic redish orange color. Copper is often found in nature in compounds that form minerals such as ???Malachite-CuCO(3) or Cu(OH)2???. Copper is also ductile. That means it can be drawn out into a thin wire. A bar of copper that is four inches thick can be heated up, rolled, and then drawn into a round wire that is thinner than a strand of human hair. If done properly, this wire would be twenty million times longer than the original bar. Because it has these properties, copper is very valuable to industries. The only element that can conduct electricity better than copper is silver, but silver is much more expensive and it would be considered a waste to use it for this. Copper is also an excellent conductor of heat. This makes it useful in cooking, refrigerators, and many types of radiators. Another feature in copper that attracts industry use is that fact that it is resistant to corrosion. This means it will never rust. If the air around copper is damp for a long time, it will go from reddish-orange to a reddish-brown type of color. A good example of this is a penny that has been wet or in a damp atmosphere for a long amount of time. The density of copper is 8.50 g/ml and has a melting point of 1984.32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Another reason that copper is very popular in industry use is because it is a natural antibacterial, and so it helps limit the spread of bacteria in water and air distribution systems made from it. It is also commonly used the make brass doorknobs, handrails and finger plates in public buildings can help to minimize the risk of bacterial transfer.
Copper can be found in many kinds of food, in drinking water and in air. Because of that, we absorb large quantities of copper each day by eating, drinking and breathing. The absorption of copper is necessary, because copper is essential for human health. Even though humans can consume a large amount of copper, too much copper can still cause health problems. Copper is made available from a variety of foods like whole grain, liver, molasses, and nuts, but water from copper pipes will also carry copper in it, and copper cooking utensils will also add more copper to be consumed. Copper does not break down in the environment and because of that, it can accumulate in plants and animals when it is found in soils. In soils with lots of copper, only a limited number of plants have a chance of survival. That is why there is not much plant diversity near factories that dispose copper. Due to the effects upon plants, copper is a serious threat to the productions of farmlands. Copper can seriously influence the production of certain farmlands, depending upon the soil and the organic matter. When the soils of farmland are polluted with copper, animals will absorb some of it. Copper is damaging to their health. Mainly, sheep suffer a great deal from copper poisoning. Too much copper in water can also damage marine life. The effect of these higher concentrations on fish and other creatures is damage to the gills, liver, kidneys, and the even the nervous system. It can also interfere with the sense of smell in fish, which can prevent them from choosing good mates or finding their way to mating areas.
Copper is also one hundred percent recyclable. It is considered a “renewable” resource because it can be recycled without any loss of quality (chemical or physical properties). In some cases, recycled copper can be remelted and used without further processing. Recycling is dependent on the quality of scrap collection systems, economic factors, product design, societal values, and government regulations.
The only reason I chose to write about copper was because it sounds like my name. Before I read about copper, I thought the only real use for it was to make pennies. But after researching things like the history, uses, and physical and chemical properties of copper, I realize that it is extremely important in many aspects of everyday life. Things like plumbing, electricity, hot water, refrigeration, and many other common appliances are all luxuries that I will never under-appreciate again. And the next time I walk out of a dirty bathroom, I will be thankful to find that the door handle is made of copper.
???How Personal Can Ethics Get???1. Discuss how personal differences and preference can impact organizational ethics.
2. Discuss how organizational policies and procedures can impact ethics.
3. Discuss the ethical dilemmas that Valerie is facing.
4. Recommend what Valerie should do. Provide a detailed explanation.
After taking all things into consideration it would still be my recommendation that Valerie just come forward with the information. The truth of the matter is the manner in which she came across the information may be frowned upon the bigger picture in this instance would have to be the information itself. By keeping it to herself this actions may very well continue??¦ as will the cycle of everyone on her team probably being over worked and under payed. It seems the best thing for the team would be the elimination of her boss and even though Valerie has a lot to lose she could potentially stand to gain so much more. I really and truly doubt that the company would not view her as even more of an asset if she were to share the information she has come across. I would say that her credibility would be enough in and of itself to ensure that she has a lasting relationship with the company which would guarantee that she is able to achieve all of her personal as well as professional goals.References:
Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W., Jr. (2011). Organizational behavior: 2011 custom edition (13th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Cops Get an Extra Set of Eyes
University of Phoenix
Managing Criminal Justice Personnel
September 15, 2011
Cops Get an Extra Set of Eyes
The value of law enforcement officers getting an extra set of eyes is very helpful to everyone involved in the criminal justice system. Having these systems help police officers analyze, clarify, and magnify videotaping of crime scenes. It helps the police to capture criminals faster. Having videotaping cameras in places also helps the police to process the information quicken, get more in-depth details of suspects involved in the crime. Without these cameras, police would have to spend a large amount of time piecing together images from several different cameras. This extra eye (camera) is very valuable to law enforcement agencies nationwide,
The ethical implication of these cameras is the one may alter the actual tape of the crime scene. By doing this could cause problems for the law enforcement agencies that may need the evidence to convict a criminal. ???The cameras may be tampered with by someone in the business establishment, which could mean that they help the burglar commit the crime. Some employees may believe that his or her privacy is being violated; they may become offended and have some trust issues with the employer. Some may even believe that the employer installed the cameras to spy on them. Most people know that many establishments have cameras in their facilities to prevent crime. Therefore they should not create a problem but sometimes they do.
Shared visions of the future of the extra eye (video surveillance cameras) law enforcement officers would be able to reduce man hours, simplify video management storage, search, extraction, and archival for law enforcement agencies. ???With the installation of these cameras in police cars the can protect the officers from false claims, department frauds, reinforce professional conduct and officer accountability. These cameras would also help to corroborate stories, document sequence of events, and create indisputable and court-admissible evidence??? (Griffith & Scoville, 2009, p. 1).
The surveillance cameras would also create a direct communication with law enforcement officer, because the information would be transferred directly to police headquarters and the officer could be notified if there was anything else happening at the scene of the crime.
The communication of these cameras would be a valuable asset to all law enforcement agencies nationwide. They would be able to share the communication to other law enforcement agencies. Therefore the future use of surveillance camera will enhance all law enforcement agencies.
Brahim, P. (2009). The Ethical Issues of Video Surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.articlebase.com/technology-article/the-ethical-issues-of-video-surveillance-1074667.html
Griffith, D., & Scoville, D. (2009). Digital Eyes. Retrieved from http://policemag.com/Channel/TechnologyArticles/2009/07/Digital-Eyes.aspx
AbstractThis paper will discuss the ethical challenges that can face every individual in certain situations. First, we will start discussing how personal differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics, and how each individual may respond differently to specific scenario of conduct based on their own characteristic behavior. Then, we will discuss how organizational policies and procedures can impact ethical behaviors and how they can, if defined clearly, deter individuals from involving in such acts and to encourage report if they experience something alike. Furthermore, we discussed in details what Valerie is going through and her situation of mixed fear and ethical values determining the best way to approach the problem. Finally, we discussed few recommendations that can help Valerie in her situation to report it without affecting her job or others in her team.Discuss how personal differences and preference can impact organizational ethics
Ethics are the values that help any individual determine the right and wrong in any situation and under any circumstances. These ethical values in the organization determine how it responds to any internal or external issues that arise from individuals or acts. They also represent the values of an organization to all employees or other outside entities. Personality differences and preferences can impact organizational ethics because each individual in any organization is has his or her own characteristics and each individual responds differently to an issue than other person. For example, someone who is a risk taker and open to new ideas by nature may find a certain act to be normal and ethically acceptable. On the other hand, an individual with conservative or cautious personality may find it ethically challenging and tries to solve the issue once noticed. In relation with personality differences and preferences, companies may build the ethical code of the organization by the types of people working for them. They are set of rules that need to be followed by all individuals since they do not serve in the company??™s best interest. Discuss how organizational policies and procedures can impact ethics
Every organization must set policies and procedures to be followed by all employees. These policies provide rules prohibiting certain acts that contradict with the company??™s best interest. They also serve to protect other employees and the overall work ethics. Just like any other company would do, Wisson organization clearly stated, as one of its policies, that ???Personal payments, bribes or kickbacks to customers or suppliers or the receipt of kickbacks, bribes or personal payments by employees are absolutely prohibited,??? (p.564). A strong message from employers about this matter would for sure deter employees from involving in such acts. However, few employees would not follow it for personal gains such as in Waters case. Valerie??™s boss, Waters, was making side deals with perfumers and was not following the company??™s policies which put him in an ethical situation along with Valarie, who also happened to find out about those deals and be in an ethical dilemma of whether to break the news or keep it to her. Employees face ethical challenges on a daily basis, from reporting misconduct internally to delivering the final product that involves the customers. Companies must remind all employees on a regular basis of its policies and procedures to avoid having these issues that contradict with the company??™s best interest. Stating the consequences of such acts and clearly defining the punishment if anyone involves in any ethical misconduct would strengthen the message to employees. An example of punishment can range from demotion to firing the employee and pressing charges if it involves a financial gain. It is the Human Resource and upper managements??™ responsibility to keep track of these policies and update them based on cultural changes if necessary. In addition, they must encourage employees to step forward if they notice any ethical issues with their peers and management team by promising incentives and rewards for doing so (e.g., money rewards, or even promotions). Discuss the ethical dilemmas that Valerie is facing
Valerie joined the Wisson organization, an international cosmetics and fragrance company, as a marketing manager. She was a team member and responsible for organizational, financial, and marketing tasks for various fragrance projects. The company was working with a number of perfumers, based on the case in Hellriegel and Slocum (2011), totaling more than 300 sample submissions per project (p.563). Few years later, Wisson stopped working with many perfumers, and the group was forced to deal with only two of the perfumers suppliers based on Lionel Waters decision, the head of the department and Valerie??™s boss. Valerie was wondering why the company had stopped working with them since they had always returned good and reliable work. One day, she found some invoices from Water??™s, her boss??™s private company, to those two perfumers that the company is currently working with for, according to Hellriegel and Slocum (2011), ???commissions and fees totaling almost $35,000 per month??? (p.563). It became clear to Valerie why would Waters limit working with only those two perfumers??”for personal gain by accepting kickbacks from them.
Valerie was facing a tremendous ethical dilemma of whether she should talk shed light on these findings or not. However, fear of losing her job was the main reason to keep her silent for the time being. Because she is on a work visa, losing her job means possibly losing her eligibility to stay in the United States and ending her dream of getting her M.S degree that she was planning on starting. With regards to her ethical values, Valerie was limited on what she can do as the decision she had to make would influence others in her group as well as herself. According to the case in Hellriegel and Slocum (2011), ???her colleagues had become her friends, particularly since they had been reduced to only a handful of them,??? (p.563). Moreover, even though reporting it was the obvious and right thing to do, ???she felt that she put her own interests before ethics for now??? (p.564), and will report it as soon as the circumstances would allow for it. Recommend what Valerie should do. Provide a detailed explanation
According to the case, Valerie was worrying that reporting this issue would jeopardize her future in the company and possibly in the country. Therefore, she decided to wait until she at least graduates from the M.S. program. However, she did try to question her boss, Waters, about adding more perfumers to work with, but he insisted not to. Regardless of the situation that Valerie was in, controlling her anger and taking the time to carefully think about what she should do was the best thing at that time. The company??™s executives and Human Resource failed to assure a total confidentiality to all employees; otherwise, Valerie would have not hesitated to report it. She knew her boss would be affected by this, but she was also concerned of her own job, so my recommendation would be to build an ally with her team members to let them know what she found. Starting slowly with her closest friends at work and ending with their, as the case in Hellriegel and Slocum (2011) stated, ???very strong brand manager, who has an excellent reputation within the Wisson organization,??? (p.564). If she had the confidence to talk to Human Resource department, she would have, but telling the brand manager of her team, who clearly had a good reputation, would help her forming this ally to break the silence. The brand manager would have greater connection and influence on upper level executives to deal with the issue as quickly as possible, and it would be more effective to come from him than her. Another way to face this issue is by building and maintaining a good relationship with human resources and tries them with a minor issue first to see how they react and solve the problem. This way she can feel more confident that they will do something about it and that this will not affect her or other??™s jobs.REFERENCES
Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W, Jr. (2011). BUS520: Organizational behavior: 2011 custom
edition (13th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.