Day: March 30, 2017
village. He began to judge the peasants and even persecute innocence. ???Simon was summoned. The case was tried, and retired, and at the end of it all Simon was acquitted, there being no evidence against him.??? (Tolstoy, 962)
Finally perserverence was a theme that wasnt to seen as other themes out shined this one. Going past everything else Pakhom was he was an extremely perserverant person. His will to gain as much land as he could led him to do many things most people wouldnt even dare. Even making deals with the devil inspite of not knowing so. He was pretty perserverant on making his land even. ???I have made the sides too long; I must make this one shorter.??? (Tolstoy, 970). Near the end of the story Pakhom is running out of time so he runs even near death. ???Pakhom was seized with terror lest he should die of the strain Though afraid of death, he could not stop.???(Tolstoy, 970). The theme was he wanted to perservere to get his land so badly he gave up his life for it. ??? He saw that blood was flowing from his mouth. Pakhom was dead!???( Tolstoy, 970). These hidden themes were the themes youd normally not see in the widespread of things. Looking deeper into whats behind the things youll catch first is harder. Hidden themes are some of the harder things to find and understand. As for the story itself the themes show itself. Pakhom was greedy and perserverant for his land. May people were Prejudice. All it really takes is to have patience and look carefully.
Source and Article.Article:
How Much Money does a man needSourceLittell, Mcdougal. World Literature, ???How Much Land does a Man Need??? Page 951-958. Austin, Texas. 2008. Print
Organized crime is a huge problem that the world has been fighting for years. Organized crime has been glorified is such movies as Hoodlum, Casino, and Belly. Movies such as these have given many people the perception that organized crime is a good thing, due to the money, power, and respect that is comes with. According to Organized Crime (2007), to a great extent these images form the basis for stereotyping what the public generally perceives as organized crime. However, these images fail to portray organized crime realistically. The truth is that organized crime is a huge problem that affects the world in a very negative manner. In this paper, the author will explain what organize crime really is, the negative impact that it causes to lives and the economy, the legal limitations of it, and realistic solutions to combat organized crime. Organized crime can be defined as a group of 3 or more that is organized structurally for illegal purposes such as drug dealing, political corruption, violence, and/or money laundering. The causes of individuals joining these groups can stem from many reasons such as the Alien Conspiracy Theory, Differential Association, Anomie, and/or many others.
Problems Presented with Organized Crime
The economy and law abiding citizens are mostly affected by organized crime groups. According to Organized Crime (2007), it states that citizens are sometimes the direct victims of organized crime enterprises by methods of violence, extortion, intimidation, etc.). Secondly, billions of dollars of tax revenue from organized crime go uncollected (estimated at $37 billion in lost taxes every year), resulting in higher tax rates for law abiding citizens. Thirdly, expenses related to law enforcement, criminal prosecution, and imprisonment of convicted members create a substantial drain on the economy of any community. Organized crime has created a huge impact on many communities that are striving to achieve a safe and law abiding community free of violence and criminal activity. It has torn down communities that were once a nice place to stay and has stereotyped it as a bad crime infested neighborhood that no one wants to live in, business owners began to leave, homeowners sell their property and move away, and poverty is prevalent.
Relationships Established by Organized Crime
The relationships established by organized crime are brought on by power, money, and greed. Many groups will form bonds of control. For example, there are many different Crip gangs claiming different areas just in Southern California alone. Two different neighborhood gangs join forces and call for a truce to overtake the revenue or territory of another gang. Even though they are all categorized as Crips, these groups are only loyal to themselves, their particular gang, and purpose. They will join forces to eliminate another in order to gain the money that they were making from their drug sells. There are personal relationships that are formed in the case of Madam St. Clair and her gang.
Madam St. Clair and her Gang was an organized crime group that was in existence during the 1920??™s. The entire group works as a cohesive group that involve themselves in illegal activity such as the numbers racket and bookkeeping to make money and protect their business ventures. The bonds that formed the group are so closely related that each entity protects the others and have an allegiance to protect the boss. These groups are structured in a Patrimonial/Patron-Client Model with a boss at the top that makes decisions and people in position under her that carry out her orders, such as Ellsworth ???Bumpy??? Johnson. Each person in the group has a duty, responsibility, and obligation to the group and its??™ sole purposes, which was to make money. For example, Ellsworth ???Bumpy??? Johnson who was her right hand man that she trusted to carry out her instructions, she personally confided in him about business matters, and for personal protection even if it cost him his own life. Within the organization there were many other people under Bumpy Johnson. None was as close to Madam St. Clair as he was, yet they were all loyal and down for her cause.
Empirical and Speculative Theories Related to Organized Crime
Empirical and speculative theories are used when referring to organized crime and criminal behavior. Some the theories that pertained to organized crime and Madam St. Clair??™s and her gang are Smith??™s Enterprise Theory, Socioeconomic Stratification, Differential Opportunity, and Alien Conspiracy Theory.
Smith??™s Enterprise Theory
Smith??™s Enterprise Theory is when legitimate businesses turn to criminal activities to produce more money and customers. In the case of Madam St. Clair??™s Gang, many businesses such as barber shops, soda shops, and night clubs serve as bookkeeping and number??™s facilities to make more money. Regular customers could go into these business as if they were carrying on with their normal routines and turn in their numbers discreetly, instead of this being done in the public eye.
Socioeconomic Stratification is explains the need of the community, Sugar Hill: Harlem 1900??™s, to find other means besides work to produce more income into the home. People could bet hard earned nickels and dimes??™ and turn it into several times that amount. The residents??™ of Harlem saw that illegal money was being made from the numbers running game with minimal amount of negative repercussions from law enforcement. At this time, it was the social normal for the community as well as accepted by residents.
Sutherland??™s Differential Opportunity
According to Organized Crime (2007), sociologist Sutherland (1973: 5), believes that criminal behavior is learned as a result of associations with others, and the propensity for innovating through criminality depends on the strength of these associations. Sutherland argues that criminal behavior occurs when definitions favorable to violation of the law exceed definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. Sutherland suggests that factors such as deprivation, limited access to legitimate alternatives, and exposure to innovative success models (i.e., pimps, gamblers, or drug dealers) create a susceptibility to criminal behavior. The bookkeeper??™s and others in the area began to make a considerable amount of money, so others began to follow in their footsteps and learn how to play and organize to get a piece of the pie.
Alien Conspiracy Theory
The Alien Conspiracy Theory explains the fact that for 1900??™s Harlem Madam St. Clair and her Gang was largely accepted by other residents. The gang was famed for bring in revenue to the people and city of Harlem. According to Understanding Organized Crime (2007), the text states that there is evidence that many organized crime groups organized themselves around ethnic backgrounds (Abadinsky, 1985). Madam St. Clair brought the numbers game to Harlem using her own money from her birth place of Martinique and it was accepted in to the relatively black community of Harlem.
Legal Limitations to Combat Organized Crime
Law enforcement agencies have devised many ways to combat organized crime. New technology has become a helpful tool in the war on organized crime with the help of organized list such as the Interpol, computers systems that quickly transfer information, technological cameras, and specialized agencies to handle different aspect of reporting information of organized crime groups. According to Interpol (2013), Interpol is the world??™s largest international police organization, with 190 member countries. Our role is to enable police around the world to work together to make the world a safer place. Our high-tech infrastructure of technical and operational support helps meet the growing challenges of fighting crime in the 21st century. Even though law enforcement agencies are at the top of their mark on combating organized crime groups and activities, they still have a ways to go, due to criminals constantly finding ways to elude the law and some countries relentless efforts to get involved with Interpol.
One of the key reasons that law enforcement cannot effectively combat organized crime is because of the restrictions place on them by the Federal and State Constitutions. Federal and State constitutions create laws that not only protect law abiding citizens, but there are laws that are in place to protect criminals. The United States laws are broken up into jurisdictions that create and enforce their own laws of investigation, apprehension, and prosecution. Even though these laws are there to protect citizens, there are many dysfunctional processes in communication within the system. The criminals are very smart when it comes to the law. They are of these dysfunctional processes and take advantage of them for their own personal gain. For example, certain law enforcement agencies do not have to report information that they have gathers to other agencies, in order to keep the proper lines of communication open for the proper apprehension of criminal organizations. Some of these problems stem from the regulations and laws that pertain to different jurisdictions and their procedures.
Realistic Solutions to Control Organized Crime
One possible solution of communication problem between agencies and jurisdiction is that united laws need to be written for the apprehension of organized crime groups and its members. There should be a universal system with a computerized technology to compute information, so that any and every agencies can use it and the information can be transmitted in a matter of seconds. Different restrictions within agencies in a major setback to how criminal are brought to justice. If all agencies had open access to information on organized crime groups, more information could be added at any time or obtain to help bring them to justice in a more uniformed manner. Then criminals cannot run from one jurisdiction to another, using their knowledge of the law, to escape extradition in any manner. Investigations can flow more smoothly due to communications practices being more effective. Officers will never feel like their hard work has come to an end and that they are not a part of the process to see the criminals arrested. This can also help in the reduction of dismissed cases, dropped charges, and false arrest.
Laws to Control Organized Crime
The United States has several laws over the years for the purpose of arresting, prosecuting, and investigating organized crime members. The most recognized law is the Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations or RICO (18 USC Chapter 96). The RICO Act is a federal law written as part of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. Racketeering is classified as a crime that takes place through or while undertaking an illegal business or commercial venture. The activity of racketeering is neither specific to solely illegal nor legal business operations. A wide array of the types of Racketeering exists. (Laws.com, 2013) This law allows for anyone who knowingly and willfully became members of domestic or international criminal organizations or known associates of such organizations and engaged in organized criminal behavior to be investigated, arrested, prosecuted and sentenced to a minimum of five years and up to $20,000 in fines as well as forfeiture of any and all assets in their possession. This law is effective in fighting organized crime there needs to be more laws in place that coincide with this one to be effective.
In conclusion, organized crime groups are violating the liberties and laws of how this nation was designed. Movies have given different people in society the notion that being a part of an organized crime group is a famed position. Movies make being a glorified gangster or criminal look easy and that law enforcement agencies have a hard time trying to investigate and apprehend them. The truth is that law enforcement agencies are well more advances that those depicted in movies, even though there are a few dysfunctional processes that need to be worked out. And as criminals are getting smarter, so is law enforcement.
Interpol. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.interpol.int/ ? Laws.com. (2013). Retrieved from http://criminal.laws.com/ricoLyman, M. D., & Potter, G. W. (2007). Organized Crime (4th ed.). Retrieved from University of Phoenix.Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding Organized Crime. Retrieved from University of Phoenix.
Prof. Blanton / Coldren
2 April 2010
How Much is that Paralysis in The Window
As Gabriel is introduced into the annual dinner party in ???The Dead,??? so is paralysis, in a rather subtle but nonetheless effective manner in which to associate paralysis directly with Gabriel. The narrator points out that ???[o]n his hairless face there scintillated restlessly the polished lenses and the bright gilt rims of the glasses which screen his delicate and restless eyes??? (178). Next, Gabriel??™s eyes are described as ???admiring and happy eyes [that] had been wandering from [Gretta??™s] dress to her face and hair??? (180). While eye movement in a normal, healthy adult may seem insignificant, a paralyzed individual??™s movement may be restricted literally to his or her eyes alone; Gabriel??™s eyes being ???restless??? is an early hint to his paralysis, introduced even before his struggle with wanting to leave Dublin, as he does not act but simply observes only by the use of his eyes.
Within this party are the instrumental figures that Joyce uses to convey the grasp paralysis has on Gabriel. When Gabriel is debating with Miss Ivors, she is attempting to persuade his traveling to be within Ireland, or in other words, remaining an insider. Feeling defensive yet desirous to remain civil, Gabriel is left in a paralytic state, as in his response to Miss Ivors??™ harangues, he ???continued blinking his eyes and trying to smile??? (188). Through this uncomfortable situation, both with the tone of the conversation as well as the topic of traveling inside or outside of Ireland, he is left not actually smiling, but trying to smile; reappearing also is the movement of Gabriel??™s eyes, rather than a more noticeable physical movement or utterance of speech. This conversation, however, finally brings out Gabriel??™s desire to leave, as he expresses to Miss Ivors, ???I??™m sick of my own country, sick of it! (190). As Gabriel??™s partial paralysis is actualized in this point of the story for the reader as well as for Gabriel, Joyce??™s mechanism through which he drives the notion of paralysis is introduced in the form of windows, which show both the reader as well as Gabriel what is offered inside, and what one can see but does not actually have, on the outside.
Gabriel??™s warm trembling fingers tapped the cold pane of the window. How cool it must be outside! How pleasant it would be to walk out alone, first along by the river and then through the park! The snow would be lying on the branches of trees and forming a bright cap on the top of the Wellington Monument. How much more pleasant it would be there than at the supper table! (192).
As the reappearing reference to the Wellington Monument surfaces, so does the notion of going westward, both of which are realized through the frame of the window. The tension building up Gabriel??™s desire for the outside world is emphasized, both on the way home from the party as well as once Gabriel and Gretta are settling into the closing of the novel. In one moment of emphasized tension by means of realization of paralysis in a window, the narrator points out, ???He was standing with her in the cold, looking in through a grated window at a man making bottles in a roaring furnace. It was very cold??? (214). The experience of this seemingly minor eye-witness account of a man working with a roaring furnace from the perspective of somebody freezing in the cold, with nothing but a window to separate the two extremities of experience, reifies the tension between being inside and outside through the opposition of hot and cold.
Once in the final room of the novel, a new set of opposites are introduced and separated by the pane of a window, which relate more to Gabriel??™s desire to leave than do hot and cold. Although he is temporarily happy with Gretta, Gabriel ???crossed the room towards the window. He looked down into the street in order that his emotion might calm a little??? (218). Instead of opposite temperatures on either side of a window, there are opposite emotions. As Gabriel??™s tension and anxiety is high from his desire to rekindle his past love with Gretta, he purposely uses the window, or rather, the contents on the outside of the window, to calm him, to feel the opposite of what he is feeling.
Finally, as the Wellington Monument??™s second appearance in the text includes its snow-capped head gleaming westward, the lure of westward travel again appears via the opposite side of the window in relation to Gabriel: ???A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window [??¦] The time had come for him to set out on his journey westward??? (225). A crucial aspect of this moment, aside from the actualization of the possibility for Gabriel to rid himself of the paralysis he often experiences, is the connection and realization between both sides of the window; Gabriel finally connects his ability to go with what he sees on the outside, rather than pair his paralysis with the outside, resulting in a lack of action, and an inhibited desire.
So how much is paralysis in the window Joyce embeds paralytic features in the different characters, allowing a realization of these features for the reader and eventually Gabriel through the tension of being inside or outside. The conundrum of inside and outside is made apparent by the way the windows work throughout the story, emphasizing what one has or where one is, and just as much emphasizing the opposite. Still, Gabriel??™s possibility for mobility is realized through the final window, which creates a new form of tension all together: Do the windows maintain the paralysis, or show possibilities of movement Instead of dwelling in the dichotomy of window operation, the importance lies in the fact that both operations work independently. As Gabriel??™s interactions with the workings of the windows include both inhibitory and mobility-actualizing experiences, the window works therefore in both ways at separate times, holding him back in the state of paralysis, as well as freeing him from the clutches of his immobility in Dublin. All of this is made possible through the paralysis, in its grasp and through the realization it affords to Gabriel, in the windows.
Joyce, James. Dubliners. New York: Penguin, 1993.
1Controlling Organized CrimeJune 17, 2013 2 When people think about organized crime, the majority of them go straight to the stories seen and heard on television about the mafia. The truth of the matter is organized crime reaches far beyond any mafia and the threat is very real and very dangerous. What follows will explore the issues of organized crime, the legal limitations faced when combating organized crime, and suggestions on ways to take more control over organized crime by evaluating the effectiveness of major federal laws aiding in the combat of organized crimes.Organized Crime Organized crime groups have been around since the beginning. These groups are highly organized and efficient in what they do. Such criminal organizations are responsible for human trafficking and the illegal entry of residents from Mexico. The Mexican border sees violent criminal enterprises with organized crime syndicates smugglings drugs, humans, weapons, and cash, (The Dark Side of Illegal Immigration-Impacts of Illegal Immigration: Crime). Such organizations are the reason there is violence and illegal contraband and drugs available in cities across the nation. Organized crime is widespread criminal activity that occurs within a centrally controlled formal structure, (thefreedicitonary.com). Criminals have a tendency to associate with other criminals. Some criminal??™s desire wealth, others desire power, and still others desire to obtain both. Having these common goals is what makes criminal organizations so successful. They work together in a strict organized fashion to reach a common goal, providing each other with protection and a promise of success.Problems Caused by Organized Crime 3 Racketeering is a form of organized crime. This kind of criminal activity includes bribery, extortion, embezzlement, fraud, counterfeiting, theft, obstruction of justice, and money laundering. When dealing with this kind of organized crime power struggles come into play. Political candidates want votes; criminal organizations will provide those votes in exchange for protection from prosecution. Organizations have the ability to influence government leaders and political players through corruption resulting in the disruption of the proper process. A victimless crime is defined as such that the offenses being committed do not directly cause the injury or death of anyone involved and that all those involved are consenting to the activity. Prostitution, gambling, and drug related crimes are just a few examples of victimless crimes. These criminal activities have high demand and so result in problems of a more personal nature. Things like loss of income, broken marriages/families, disease, or addictions are all examples of the problems these crimes create. Theft or fencing is a popular crime among criminal organizations. Organizations involved with theft dip their hands in retail theft, grand theft auto, fraud, and interstate theft. Organized fencing rings impact the economy because products in high demand are offered at a lower cost but done so illegally and therefore result in currency not processing through the economy. These organizations cause the loss of billions of dollars in profit for legit businesses and a loss of tax revenue for local, state, and federal governments, (fbi.gov). Gangs are the most popular form of organized crime. As defined by the National Institute of Justice, a gang is a group of three or more people who collectively identify themselves with a 4group identity used to create fear and intimidation with the purpose of engaging in criminal activities. Gangs commit crimes like robbery, trafficking of drugs and weapons, extortion, fraud, and prostitution. Gangs keep control of their local community and rival gangs with the use of excessive violence and intimidation. Gang activity causes problems with social and economic institutions primarily within the school, church, or family.Relationships within organized crime There are several theories on the relationships within organized crime. The alien conspiracy theory is the most widely accepted theory. This theory states that organized crime was brought to the United States from other countries through immigrants. The theory continues in that some believe the organized groups existed in other countries and were brought here to further expand the organizations. The theory also explores the idea that immigrants came to the United States without the necessary tools to make a living and as a result turned to crime to provide. The social disorganization theory says criminal activity is likely to occur where social institutions are failing. This theory suggests that it is easier for criminal organizations to move into and a place that suffers from poverty, unemployment, lack of law enforcement presence, and a weakened sense of community. With this, the community would rather not get involved in the business of others but also has a higher demand for products and services offered by criminal organizations. Organizations can also provide a source of income for those who are otherwise reliant on the government to pay their unemployment. 5 The strain theory is the belief that people get involved with organized crime to fill a void. It could be the void of close relationships, lack of income, or a desire to be rich and powerful. These voids would be left unfilled if individuals relied on legal methods to fill them. This theory implies that one will commit an act of violence as a release for pent up frustrations, or that a person will produce and sell illegal contraband because they will make more of a profit than any legal job would offer them. In this theory, organized crime is beneficial to those who seek it out.Legal Limitations Law enforcement and government agencies obtain efficient tools to combat organized crime and have used those tools successfully; organized crime continues to grow and to prosper in society. With society having such a high demand for illicit drugs there is an ongoing market for these organizations to focus on. The high demand for drugs and other contraband is out of the control of agencies combating this crime. Technology definitely hinders the ability to fight organized crime. Although technology does work in the favor of law enforcement, new ways of using technology for crime are happening every moment. By the time agencies catch up and find a solution to the latest technology trend in criminal organizations, the organizations have already found a new way of doing things. Legal limitations placed on law enforcement result in the ability for organized crime to prosper. The federal and state constitutions provide restrictions for law enforcement through laws, rules, regulations, and procedures. Each jurisdiction has its own way of procedure, so if 6cases were to cross jurisdictions and the agency working on the case did not meet the procedure requirements for the new jurisdiction, the entire case could be a loss. Conflicts arise between jurisdictions for this reason, making it difficult to have the cooperation of everyone involved. The conflicts then present technicalities that were missed and again, case dismissed.Solutions to combat organized crime Being that there are differences in procedures and regulations for each jurisdiction then maybe it should be taken into consideration that these regulations change. If federal and state laws were on the same page so that the procedures and regulations were basic enough to be more universal, then when jurisdictions were crossed in a case, the investigation and/or prosecution would not be hindered. Strengthening the cooperation between jurisdictions would help as well, closing many loopholes that result in technicalities. This would allow for agencies to work closer together and on the same level giving them the advantage over organized crime. The United States has created many laws in regards to the investigating, arresting, and prosecuting of criminals. The Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) law was written as part of the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. This law allows for anyone who is knowingly and willingly members of domestic or international criminal organizations, or associates of such organizations, engaged in criminal behavior to be investigated, arrested, and prosecuted with a sentence minimum of five years with up to $20,000 in fines and a forfeiture of all assets within their possession. 7 The RICO law is effective in fighting organizations more should be done. Improving relationships with other nations will allow for the sharing of evidence and intelligence on criminal organizations that expand over more than one country. By working together methods, tools, and special trainings can be shared resulting in more thorough investigations and faster prosecutions. Another positive result of working closely with other nations is that when a criminal is detained, charges from all countries involved can be brought to trial at once.Conclusion Criminal organizations hold respect and power from these involved. They use intimidation as a means to keep control and run a very sophisticated business. Society will continue to be threatened by these organizations as well as continue to fund the same organizations through high demand of their products. AS long as there is a market for these services these organizations will continue to prosper. The only thing that can be done now is to find more ways to fight it. 8ReferencesNo Author. (2012). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories. Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.law.jrank.orgFederal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). Gangs; they poison our streets with drugs, violence, and all manner of crime. Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.fbi.govFederal Bureau of Investigation. (2011). Organized Retail Theft; a $30 billion a year industry. Retrieved June 14, 2013 from http://www.fbi.govNational Institute of Justice. (2011). what is a gang Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.nij.govOrganized crime. (2003). the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed. Retrieved June14, 2013 from http://www.thefreedictionary.comRICO. (n.d.) Retrieved June 13, 2013 from http://www.law.jrank.orgRacketeering. (2008). West??™s Encyclopedia of American Law, 2nd ed. Retrieved June 14, 2013 from http://www.legal-dictionary.thefreeditionary.com